The Kingdom of Spain is a parliamentary democracy headed by a constitutional monarch. The country has a bicameral parliament, known as the General Courts or National Assembly, consisting of the Congress of Deputies (lower house) and the Senate (upper house). The head of the largest political party or coalition in the Congress of Deputies usually is named to head the government as president of the Council of Ministers, the equivalent of prime minister. Observers considered the two national elections held in 2019 to be free and fair.
The national police and the Civil Guard maintain internal security as well as migration and border enforcement, under the authority of the Ministry of the Interior. The regional police under the authority of the Catalan and the Basque Country regional governments and municipal police throughout the country also support domestic security. Civilian authorities maintained effective control over the security forces. There were credible reports that members of the security forces committed some abuses.
Significant issues included the existence of criminal libel laws.
The government had mechanisms in place to identify and punish officials who commit human rights abuses.