With improving security conditions in metropolitan areas, a market of 50 million people, an abundance of natural resources, and an educated and growing middle-class, Colombia continues to be an attractive destination for foreign investment in Latin America. Colombia ranked 67 out of 190 countries in the “Ease of Doing Business” index of the World Bank’s 2020 Doing Business Report.
The Colombian economy contracted for the first time in more than two decades in 2020, with the effects of COVID-19 and lower oil prices resulting in a 6.8 percent decline in GDP. Measures to alleviate the pandemic’s effects led to a temporary suspension of Colombia’s fiscal rule and the deficit surpassing eight percent of GDP for 2020, with a similar deficit expected in 2021.
Colombia’s legal and regulatory systems are generally transparent and consistent with international norms. The country has a comprehensive legal framework for business and foreign direct investment (FDI). The 2012 U.S.-Colombia Trade Promotion Agreement (CTPA) has strengthened bilateral trade and investment. Colombia’s dispute settlement mechanisms have improved through the CTPA and several international conventions and treaties. Weaknesses include protection of intellectual property rights (IPR), as Colombia has yet to implement certain IPR-related provisions of the CTPA. Colombia became the 37th member of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in 2020, bringing the obligation to adhere to OECD norms and standards in economic operations.
The Colombian government has made a concerted effort to develop efficient capital markets, attract investment, and create jobs. Restrictions on foreign ownership in specific sectors still exist. FDI inflows increased 25.6 percent from 2018 to 2019, with a third of the 2019 inflow dedicated to the extractives sector and another 21 percent to professional services and finance. Roughly half of the Colombian workforce in metropolitan areas is employed in the informal economy, a share that increases to four-fifths in rural areas. Unemployment ended 2020 at 17.3 percent, a 4.3 percentage point increase from a year prior.
Since the 2016 peace agreement between the government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), Colombia has experienced a significant decrease in terrorist activity. Several powerful narco-criminal operations still pose threats to commercial activity and investment, especially in rural zones outside of government control.
Corruption remains a significant challenge. The Colombian government continues to work on improving its business climate, but U.S. and other foreign investors have voiced complaints about non-tariff, regulatory, and bureaucratic barriers to trade, investment, and market access at the national, regional, and municipal levels. Investors also note concern at a heavy reliance by the national competition and regulatory authority (SIC) on decrees to remedy perceived problems.
|TI Corruption Perceptions Index||2020||92 of 180||http://www.transparency.org/research/cpi/overview|
|World Bank’s Doing Business Report||2020||67 of 190||http://www.doingbusiness.org/en/rankings|
|Global Innovation Index||2020||68 of 131||https://www.globalinnovationindex.org/analysis-indicator|
|U.S. FDI in partner country ($M USD, historical stock positions)||2019||$8,264||https://apps.bea.gov/international/factsheet/|
|World Bank GNI per capita||2019||$6,510||http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD|
13. Foreign Direct Investment and Foreign Portfolio Investment Statistics
|Colombia Statistical source*||USG or international statistical source||USG or International
Source of Data:
BEA; IMF; Eurostat;
|Host Country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ($B USD)||2019||$299.1||2019||$323.6||www.worldbank.org/en/country|
|Foreign Direct Investment||Colombia Statistical source*||USG or international statistical source||USG or international
Source of data:
BEA; IMF; Eurostat;
|U.S. FDI in partner country ($M USD, stock positions)||2019||$2,611||2019||$8,264||BEA data available at
|Host country’s FDI in the United States ($M USD, stock positions)||2019||$50||2019||$174||BEA data available at
|Total inbound stock of FDI as % host GDP||2019||4.8%||2019||4.6%||UNCTAD data available at https://stats.unctad.org/
*Data from the Colombian Statistics Departments, DANE, (https://www.dane.gov.co/) and the Colombian central bank (http://www.banrep.gov.co). Note: U.S. FDI reported by Banco de la Republica is not historically adjusted.
Table 3: Sources and Destination of FDI
Colombian data is not available from the IMF’s coordinated direct investment survey.
|Portfolio Investment Assets|
|Top Five Partners (Millions, current US Dollars)|
|Total||Equity Securities||Total Debt Securities|
|All Countries||39,471||100%||All Countries||26,135||100%||All Countries||13,336||100%|
|United States||24,784||63%||United States||17,995||69%||United States||6,790||51%|