Note: Except where otherwise noted, all references in this report exclude the secessionist region of Transnistria.
The Republic of Moldova is a parliamentary democracy with competitive multiparty elections. The constitution provides for legislative and executive branches, as well as an independent judiciary and a clear separation of powers. Legislative authority is vested in the unicameral parliament. Parliamentary elections on February 24 met most Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), Council of Europe, and other international commitments, although observers noted allegations of vote buying and misuse of administrative resources. Two rounds of presidential elections in 2016 resulted in the election of Igor Dodon. According to the OSCE election observation mission, both rounds were competitive and respected fundamental freedoms. International and domestic observers, however, noted polarized and unbalanced media coverage, harsh and intolerant rhetoric, lack of transparency in campaign financing, and instances of abuse of administrative resources.
The national police force reports to the Ministry of Internal Affairs and is the primary law enforcement body, responsible for internal security, public order, traffic, migration, and border enforcement. The police force has two divisions: criminal and public order. The agencies under the ministry are the General Police Inspectorate, Border Police, the Civil Protection Service, Carabinieri (a militarized gendarmerie responsible for protecting public buildings and other national security functions), the Bureau for Migration and Asylum, and the Material Reserves Agency. Civilian authorities maintained effective control over the security forces.
On June 7, six weeks after the parliamentary elections, the country faced an unprecedented political and constitutional crisis when the Constitutional Court ruled to dissolve parliament, stating that the deadline to form a parliamentary majority had expired, and suspended President Dodon. The then ruling Democratic Party (PDM) refused to relinquish power to a newly formed governing coalition of the pro-Russian Socialist Party (PSRM) and the pro-Western NOW Platform or ACUM bloc. As a result, there were two parallel governments between June 7 and 14. Following intense negotiation and diplomatic engagement, power transitioned peacefully to the newly formed coalition, with ACUM’s Maia Sandu as prime minister and PSRM’s Zinaida Greceanii as speaker of parliament. On November 12, the Sandu Cabinet was dismissed in a no-confidence vote by a majority of PSRM and PDM legislators following an intracoalition dispute on the selection of a new prosecutor general. Two days later, a new PSRM-appointed minority government was sworn in, led by former presidential advisor Ion Chicu and supported by PDM.
Significant human rights issues included: torture; arbitrary detention; harsh and life-threatening prison conditions; political prisoners; arbitrary or unlawful interference with privacy; problems with judicial independence; acts of corruption; violence against and medical abuse of children and adults in psychiatric hospitals and residential institutions for persons with mental disabilities; and the use of forced or compulsory child labor.
While authorities investigated reports of official human rights abuses, they rarely successfully prosecuted and punished officials accused of human rights violations or corruption. Selective prosecution of officials for political reasons continued. Impunity remained a major problem. Opposition parties reported pressure and politically motivated prosecutions and detentions.
In 1990 separatists declared a “Transdniester Moldovan Republic” (Transnistria) along the border with Ukraine. A 1992 ceasefire agreement established a peacekeeping force of Moldovan, Russian, and Transnistrian units. The central government did not exercise authority in the region, and Transnistrian authorities governed through parallel administrative structures. There were reports that police in Transnistria engaged in torture, arbitrary arrests, and unlawful detentions.