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Belgium

Executive Summary

The constitution provides for freedom of religion, and the law prohibits discrimination based on religious orientation. Federal law bans covering one’s face in public. On March 7, the Court of Assizes in Brussels (the highest criminal court) convicted French citizen Mehdi Nemmouche of murder in the killings of four persons at the Belgian Jewish Museum in 2014 and sentenced him to life in prison. Longstanding applications for government recognition by Buddhists and Hindus remained pending. As previously announced, the federal government’s termination of Saudi Arabia’s lease on the Great Mosque in Brussels became effective on March 31; the mosque remained open under management of the local Muslim community, pending a more permanent restructuring. The Flemish minister of interior withdrew the recognition of one mosque, reducing the number of recognized mosques nationally to 83. Pending responses to questions it posed to the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU), the Constitutional Court postponed a ruling on challenges by Jewish and Muslim groups to laws in Wallonia and Flanders that came into effect during the year and that banned the slaughter of animals without prior stunning. In June the Liege prosecutor dropped discrimination charges against a man who in 2014 posted a sign outside his cafe saying dogs were welcome but Jews were not. In November the West Flanders public prosecutor’s office declined to prosecute four supporters of the soccer team Club Brugge for participating in anti-Semitic chants during a match in August 2018.

There were incidents of religiously motivated violence, threats, harassment, discrimination, and hate speech against Jews and Muslims. The government’s Center for Equal Opportunities, Unia, preliminarily reported for 2018, the most recent year for which data were available, 101 anti-Semitic incidents (109 in 2017), and 307 incidents (319 in 2017) against other religious groups, 90 percent of which targeted Muslims. Unia also reported a large increase in online hate speech during the first six months of the year, with 740 reported instances, compared with 369 in 2018 for the same period. In September a European Commission study found that 65 percent of respondents believed discrimination on the basis of religion or belief was widespread in the country. In January the European Commission published a Special Eurobarometer survey indicating 50 percent of residents believed anti-Semitism was a problem. Media reported that in March a driver attempted to run over two veiled Muslim sisters while they were picking up their children from school. According to Unia, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and media, incidents of religious discrimination toward Muslims in both the workplace and educational institutions typically involved actions directed against women wearing headscarves and a failure to make accommodations for prayer, religious holidays, or dietary requirements. Jewish groups reported anti-Semitic statements and attitudes in media and in schools during the year, including ones related to the Holocaust. Media reported in March during the Aalst Carnival, a group displayed a float depicting negative Jewish stereotypes. During the campaign leading up to general elections in May, unknown individuals photoshopped or tagged on social media anti-Semitic statements or caricatures on the campaign material or photographs from several candidates, including Prime Minister Charles Michel.

U.S. embassy officials continued to meet regularly with senior government officials in the Office of the Prime Minister and at the Ministries of Interior, Foreign Affairs, and Justice to discuss anti-Muslim and anti-Semitic incidents and discrimination. Embassy officials also discussed with government officials the continued efforts of Buddhist and Hindu groups to obtain recognition and the status of the government’s plans to encourage more mosques to apply for official recognition as places of worship. The Department of State Special Envoy to Monitor and Combat Anti-Semitism met with the Jewish and Muslim communities to discuss their concerns. The Ambassador and other embassy officials met with NGOs and religious leaders in Brussels and other communities to address anti-Muslim and anti-Semitic incidents and sentiment, and to promote religious tolerance.

Section I. Religious Demography

The U.S. government estimates the total population at 11.6 million (midyear 2019 estimate). According to a December 2018 survey conducted by GESIS-Leibniz Institute for the Social Sciences, 57.1 percent is Roman Catholic, 2.3 percent Protestant, 2.8 percent other Christian, 6.8 percent Muslim (mostly Sunni), 0.6 percent Orthodox, 0.3 percent Jewish, 0.3 percent Buddhist, 9.1 percent atheist, 20.2 percent “nonbeliever/agnostic,” and 0.5 percent other. A 2015 study by the Catholic University of Louvain estimates the Muslim portion of the population is 7 percent. According to the study, a plurality of Muslims resides in Flanders (42.2 percent); it estimates 35.5 percent of Muslims reside in Brussels and 22.3 percent in Wallonia. According to Catholic University of Louvain sociologist Jan Hertogen, based on data in the 2015 study, 24.2 percent of the Brussels population and 7.5 percent of the Antwerp population is Muslim.

Section II. Status of Government Respect for Religious Freedom

Legal Framework

The constitution provides for freedom of worship, including its public practice, and freedom of expression, provided no crime is committed in the exercise of these freedoms. It states no individual may be required to participate in any religious group’s acts or ceremonies or to observe the group’s religious days of rest, and it bars the state from interfering in the appointment of religious clergy or blocking the publication of religious documents. It obligates the state to pay the salaries and pensions of religious clergy (according to law, to qualify these clergy must work in recognized houses of worship and be certified by those religious groups), as well as those of representatives of organizations recognized by the law as providing moral assistance based on a nonconfessional philosophy.

The law prohibits discrimination based on religious or philosophical (e.g., nonconfessional) orientation. Federal law prohibits public statements inciting religious hatred, including Holocaust denial. Discrimination based on Jewish descent is distinguished from discrimination against Jewish religious practices. The maximum sentence for Holocaust denial is one year in prison.

The government officially recognizes Catholicism, Protestantism (including evangelicals and Pentecostals), Judaism, Anglicanism (separately from other Protestant groups), Islam, Orthodox (Greek and Russian) Christianity, and secular humanism.

The requirements to obtain official recognition are not legally defined. The legal basis for official recognition is the constitution and other laws and interpretations, some of which predate the constitution itself. A religious group seeking official recognition applies to the Ministry of Justice, which then recommends approval or rejection to parliament, which votes on the application. The government evaluates whether the group meets organizational and reporting requirements and applies criteria based on administrative and legislative precedents in deciding whether to recommend granting recognition to a religious group. The religious group must have a structure or hierarchy, a “sufficient number” of members, and a “long period” of existence in the country. It must offer “social value” to the public, abide by the laws of the state, and respect public order. The government does not formally define “sufficient number,” “long period of time,” or “social value.” Final approval is the sole responsibility of the federal parliament; however, parliament generally accepts the ministry’s recommendation.

The law requires each officially recognized religion to have an official interlocutor, such as an office composed of one or more representatives of the religion plus administrative staff, to support the government in its constitutional duty of providing the material conditions for the free exercise of religion. The functions performed by the interlocutor include certification of clergy and teachers of the religion, assistance in the development of the religious curriculum in schools, and oversight of the management of houses of worship.

The federal government provides financial support for officially recognized religious groups. The subsidies for recognized groups include payment of clergy salaries and for maintenance and equipment for facilities and places of worship, as well as tax exemptions. Denominations or divisions within the recognized religious groups (Shia Islam, Reform Judaism, or Lutheranism, for example) do not receive support or recognition separate from their parent religious group. Parent religious groups distribute subsidies according to their statutes, which may also include salaries to ministers and public funding for renovation or facility maintenance. Unrecognized groups do not receive government subsidies but may worship freely and openly.

There are procedures for individual houses of worship of recognized religious groups to obtain recognition and state subsidies. To do so, a house of worship must meet requirements set by the region in which it is located and by the federal Ministry of Justice. These requirements include transparency and legality of accounting practices, renunciation of foreign sources of income for ministers of religion working in the facility, compliance with building and fire safety codes, and certification of the minister of religion by the relevant interlocutor body. Recognized houses of worship also receive subsidies from the linguistic communities and municipalities for the upkeep of religious buildings. Houses of worship or other religious groups that are unable or choose not to meet these requirements may organize as nonprofit associations and benefit from lower taxes but not government subsidies. Houses of worship in this situation (i.e., not completing the recognition process) may still be affiliated with an officially recognized religious group.

There is a federal ban on covering one’s face in public. Women who wear the full-face veil in public face a maximum fine of 137.50 euros ($150).

Bans on the slaughter of animals without prior stunning enacted by the Flanders and Walloon regional governments took effect on January 1and September 1, respectively. The Brussels region still allows ritual slaughtering without stunning. The legislation does not prevent halal and kosher meat from being imported from abroad.

The constitution requires teaching in public schools to be neutral with respect to religious belief. The public education system requires neutrality in the presentation of religious views outside of religion classes. All public schools offer religious or “moral” instruction oriented toward citizenship and moral values. Outside of Flanders, these courses are mandatory; parents in schools in Flanders may have their children opt out of such courses. Francophone schools offer a mandatory one-hour per week “philosophy and citizenship” course plus an additional one-hour mandatory course on either philosophy and citizenship or the recognized religions, based on a constitutional court ruling.

Schools provide teachers, clerical or secular, for each of the recognized religious groups, as well as for secular humanism, according to the student’s preference. Teachers of religion are permitted to express their religious beliefs and wear religious attire, even if school policy otherwise forbids such attire. Public school religion teachers are nominated by a committee from their religious group and appointed by the linguistic community government’s education minister. Private, authorized religious schools (limited to schools operated by recognized religious groups), known as “free” schools, follow the same curriculum as public schools but may place greater emphasis on specific religious classes. Teachers at these religious schools are civil servants, and their salaries, as well as subsidies for the schools’ operating expenses, are paid for by the respective linguistic community, municipality, or province.

Unia is a publicly funded but independent agency responsible for reviewing discrimination complaints, including those of a religious nature, and attempting to resolve them through mediation or arbitration. The agency lacks legal powers to enforce resolution of cases but may refer them to the courts.

The justice minister appoints a magistrate in each judicial district to monitor discrimination cases and oversee their prosecution, including those involving religion, as a criminal act.

The country is a party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

Government Practices

Some observers continued to state a number of mosques opted not to seek official recognition because they received sufficient foreign funding and preferred to operate without government oversight. Notwithstanding a stated government policy of extending recognition to more mosques (which would make them eligible for government funding) and curbing foreign, radical Islamic influence over them by reducing the mosques’ reliance on foreign funding and providing authorities with greater oversight, the number of recognized mosques decreased. The Flemish regional minister of interior questioned the existing recognition of some mosques and withdrew recognition of one of them during the year, reducing the number of recognized mosques nationally from 84 to 83. The Flemish government, formed on September 30, announced a strengthening of the recognition criteria by strengthening the security screening of mosques to ensure imams and worshippers were not radicalized and were not subject to direct foreign influence.

Longstanding applications for government recognition by Buddhists and Hindus remained pending at year’s end. Buddhists filed a request for recognition in 2008, and Hindus in 2013. Representatives of the Buddhist and Hindu communities said they did not receive an official explanation for the delay as of year’s end. There were no other pending recognition requests by religious groups. Despite the lack of recognition, Buddhists continued to receive federal government subsidies. The government did not give Hindus any subsidies. In September a member of parliament submitted a draft bill calling for the recognition of Buddhism and for a 74,100 euro ($83,300) annual subsidy to Hindus.

The government maintained its ban on the wearing of religious symbols by employees in public sector jobs requiring interaction with the public. The September agreement forming a coalition government in Flanders stated the Flemish network for public schools, Go!, would enforce a general ban on wearing headscarves. The ban applied to schools in Flanders and Flemish schools in Brussels. Even before the Flemish government’s announcement, virtually all public schools in Flanders maintained such a ban. Most public schools outside of Flanders also continued to ban headscarves, in accordance with government policy allowing individual schools to decide whether to impose such bans. According to media reports, at least 90 percent of Francophone community public schools banned headscarves.

There were no reported changes in procedures by city and town administrations, which Muslim groups have said withhold or delay approval for the construction of new mosques and Islamic cultural centers. In Court-St.-Etienne, construction of a mosque financed with private contributions began in February. Local authorities approved the project in 2018 after delays and four previous rejections. In April city authorities in Lodelinsart approved a mosque construction project, with revisions, after neighbors filed 119 complaints against the project. In September city authorities denied a proposed mosque construction in Jette; neighbors had filed 154 complaints against that project, citing such issues as the scope of the construction and its impact on parking and transportation.

As announced in 2018 following a parliamentary commission report on terrorist attacks, the federal government terminated Saudi Arabia’s lease on the Great Mosque in Brussels effective March 31. The government said it terminated the lease because the Great Mosque was spreading Wahhabi Salafism, which the government stated played a role in spreading violent radicalism. Saudi Arabia had signed a 99-year lease for the building in 1969. The government called for the creation of a new, pan-Islamic institution to manage the mosque and said the Muslim Executive, the Muslim community’s official representative in discussions with the government, would be responsible for creating the institution and ensuring it began managing the mosque by the lease termination date. The transition, which was not completed by March 31, continued at year’s end. The Great Mosque, however, remained open, operated by the Muslim Executive under a temporary contract.

The Jewish and Muslim communities maintained their legal challenge to the decisions by the Flanders and Walloon regional governments to ban slaughter without prior stunning. The Walloon ban went into effect on September 1. There were no temporary slaughterhouses authorized in Brussels and Walloon Region to carry out slaughter without prior stunning during Islamic holidays. A large slaughterhouse that performed ritual slaughter continued to operate in Brussels but could not accommodate all requests. The Belgian Constitutional Court had been scheduled to decide the issue on April 4 but postponed its ruling and sought guidance from the CJEU. Specifically, the Constitutional Court asked the CJEU to clarify restrictions and exemptions regarding ritual slaughter, the scope of these rules and their compatibility with religious freedom, and the distinction between ritual slaughter and other forms of animal killing. At year’s end, the CJEU had not responded to the Constitutional Court’s queries. More than 50 religious groups appealed to the Constitutional Court to overturn the slaughter ban, according to Religion News Service.

In April eight religious leaders representing the Catholic, Orthodox, Protestant, Evangelical, Jewish, and Muslim communities issued a public statement calling for schools in the country to maintain compulsory religion courses, which they said encouraged dialogue among cultures and religions. The statement followed recommendations by some politicians to introduce secularism in the constitution, which some observers said could eventually lead to an end of religious courses in schools. The government decided not to consider a change in the constitution.

According to a report on the website of state broadcaster Belgian Francophone Radio and Television, following the May general elections, federal railway agency employees in Brussels who supported what political analysts described as far-right parties delivered Nazi salutes and made racist comments at work. The company opened an internal investigation of these acts and released a public statement denouncing them.

Media reported that in June the Liege prosecutor dropped discrimination charges against a Turkish man who in 2014 put a sign on the door outside his cafe reading in French, “Entrance allowed for dogs, but not for Zionists” and in Turkish, “In this establishment, dogs are allowed, but Jews will never be.” A spokesperson for the Liege prosecutor’s office did not provide a reason for dismissing the charges.

Media reported that in November the West Flanders public prosecutor’s office declined to prosecute four supporters of the soccer team Club Brugge for singing anti-Semitic songs during a match in August 2018. The individuals were among a group of fans who chanted, “My father was a commando, my mother was in the SS, together they burned Jews, ‘cause Jews burn the best.” In 2018 the national soccer association banned the four from entering all major stadiums in the country for three years. According to media, prosecutors explained their decision saying the stadium ban was sufficient punishment. Michael Freilich, a Jewish parliamentarian (MP) from the New Flemish Alliance Party, criticized the decision.

In 2018, the most recent year for which information was available, the Ministry of Justice allocated approximately 112 million euros ($125.8 million) to religious and secular humanist groups (up slightly from 111 million euros [$124.7 million] in 2017): 92.3 million euros ($103.7 million) to recognized religious groups (including 4.9 million euros [$5.5 million] to Muslims; the individual allocations to other religious groups were unavailable), 19.5 million euros ($21.9 million) to secular humanists, and 160,000 euros ($180,000) to Buddhists. According to the 2018 report of the Observatory of Religions and Secularism at the Free University of Brussels, the Muslim community, unlike other recognized religious groups, continued to receive a smaller percentage of the government’s allocation than what nongovernmental sources estimated was its current share of the population.

Police continued to offer a voluntary, day-long course, “The Holocaust, the Police, and Human Rights” at the Dossin Barracks in Malines, site of a Holocaust museum and memorial. The training consisted of a visit to the museum at the barracks site from which Nazis transported Jews and Roma to concentration camps to the east during World War II, and a workshop focusing on radicalization, collective violence, exclusion, and polarization. The training was a joint collaboration among federal and local police, the center at the Dossin Barracks, and Unia. According to federal police, approximately 10,000 persons, approximately one-fifth of the total force, had undergone the training since its inception in 2014.

In January the government revived a federal-level taskforce to combat anti-Semitism, in response to Unia’s request to reactivate the “Anti-Semitism Council.” The council was created in 2004 to combat anti-Semitism but had not met since 2013. Vice Prime Minister and Minister for Equal Opportunities Kris Peeters said the government revived the taskforce in response to evidence from national and European Union (EU)-level rapporteurs that violent, anti-Semitic incidents were on the rise in recent years.

Section III. Status of Societal Respect for Religious Freedom

Media and NGOs, including Amnesty International, the Collective against Islamophobia in Belgium, and Unia reported incidents of violence, threats, harassment, discrimination, and hate speech against Muslims and Jews during the year. Unia reported 101 anti-Semitic incidents – which it defined as incidents against Jewish persons rather than against Jewish religious practices and tracked separately – and 307 complaints of other religious discrimination or harassment in 2018, the most recent year for which data were available, compared with 109 anti-Semitic incidents and 319 other complaints in 2017. Approximately 90 percent of incidents targeted Muslims. There were three incidents against Christians, 12 against Jewish religious practices, and four against nonbelievers. According to Unia, 37.1 percent of the incidents in 2018 involved speech in media or on the internet (slightly less than half of these media/internet complaints involved Facebook postings); 18.2 percent concerned discrimination in the workplace; and 23.3 percent occurred in the education sector (where a plurality of incidents involved restrictions or prohibitions on wearing of the hijab).

In May the European Commission carried out a study in each EU member state on perceptions of discrimination and published the results in September. According to the findings, 65 percent of respondents believed discrimination on the basis of religion or belief was widespread in Belgium, while 34 percent said it was rare; 82 percent would be comfortable with having a person of a different religion than the majority of the population occupy the highest elected political position in the country. In addition, 97 percent said they would be comfortable working closely with a Christian, and 93 percent said they would be with an atheist, 92 percent with a Jew, 89 percent with a Muslim, and 92 percent with a Buddhist. Asked how they would feel if their child were in a “love relationship” with an individual belonging to various groups, 97 percent said they would be comfortable if the partner were Christian, 89 percent if atheist, 82 percent if Jewish, 84 percent if Buddhist, and 71 percent if Muslim.

In January the European Commission published a Special Eurobarometer survey of perceptions of anti-Semitism based on interviews it conducted in December 2018 in each EU member state. According to the survey, 50 percent of residents believed anti-Semitism was a problem in Belgium, and 48 percent believed it had stayed the same over the previous five years. The percentage who believed anti-Semitism was a problem in nine different categories was as follows: Holocaust denial, 57 percent; on the internet, 61 percent; anti-Semitic graffiti or vandalism, 52 percent; expression of hostility or threats against Jews in public places, 59 percent; desecration of Jewish cemeteries, 54 percent; physical attacks against Jews, 56 percent; anti-Semitism in schools and universities, 52 percent; anti-Semitism in political life, 46 percent; and anti-Semitism in media, 45 percent.

In November the Anti-Defamation League released the results of a survey on anti-Semitic views of the country’s residents. The survey cited stereotypical statements about Jews and asked respondents whether they believed such statements were “probably true” or “probably false.” The proportion agreeing that various statements were “probably true” was: 50 percent that Jews are more loyal to Israel than to Belgium; 38 percent that Jews have too much power in the business world; and 40 percent that Jews talk too much about the Holocaust.

In January the Brussels Criminal Court sentenced an Orthodox Christian woman to three years in jail for stabbing her daughter in the abdomen and under the chin after the daughter converted to Islam and secretly married a Muslim.

According to media reports, on March 22, a driver cursed at and attempted to run over two veiled Muslim sisters while they were picking up their children from school. One of the women told the press that in 10 years in the country they had never experienced problems before. “I am still in shock,” she said. Police arrested the driver. As of year’s end no further information was available on the case.

Media reported that on June 11, security guards stopped an Iraqi man carrying three knives as he tried to enter the Romi Goldmuntz Synagogue in Antwerp during a Jewish holiday. Police arrested the man. As of year’s end no further information was available on the case.

Unia reported 56 complaints of workplace discrimination based on religion in 2018, compared with 82 in 2017. The reported discrimination principally targeted Muslims.

According to Unia, NGOs, and media, incidents of religious discrimination toward Muslims in both the workplace and educational institutions typically involved actions directed against women wearing headscarves and a failure to make accommodations for prayer, religious holidays, or dietary requirements.

In May Unia supported a complaint to the labor court filed by a Muslim woman who said the Brussels public transportation company denied her employment because she wore a headscarf. In its plea the Unia legal advisor alleged general discrimination specifically against Muslim women who wear the headscarf, rather than more broadly against Muslims or women within the company.

Unia preliminarily reported a doubling of notifications of online hate speech during the first six months of the year to 740, compared with 369 notifications during the same period in 2018. Unia stated notifications consisted of initial reports, not all of which it would, after investigation, accept as actual instances of discrimination. In addition, some notifications were duplicate reports of the same incident, and not all online hate speech notifications were linked to religion. According to Unia, the run-up to the general elections, which took place in May, was a “traditional peak” time for online hate speech.

During the campaign leading up to general elections in May, unknown persons photoshopped or tagged on social media anti-Semitic statements or caricatures on the campaign material or photographs from several candidates, including Prime Minister Michel. In April a Communist Party activist posted on Facebook a photoshopped picture depicting Prime Minister Michel as an Orthodox Jewish rabbi. The man subsequently removed the post.

Jewish groups reported anti-Semitic statements and attitudes in media and in schools during the year, including on the Holocaust. La Derniere Heure, a daily newspaper, reported that on November 16, a high school teacher in Huy, who taught about Islam as part of the religious studies curriculum, posted on his Facebook page a video of an imam’s sermon. In the video, the imam said, “For those who cooperate with the Jews, work with the Jews, and those who plot with the Jews, O Allah, take them very quickly and without delay, O Allah, shake their bases and destroy their structures.” Education ministry officials in Wallonia said they filed a hate speech complaint against the teacher with police.

In September the European Jewish Association issued a statement protesting an online sign language video dictionary compiled by the public University of Ghent, which included a gesture signaling a hooked nose as the definition of “Jew.” European Jewish Association Director Menachem Margolin called that and another video depicting Jews racist and demeaning and asked the university to remove them from the dictionary. The university subsequently added a label under the video showing the hooked nose gesture indicating the sign had a “negative connotation.”

In March during the Aalst Carnival, the group Vismooil’n displayed a float depicting Orthodox Jews with crooked noses standing atop bags of gold coins, with one of the figures carrying a white rat on its shoulder. A number of Jewish groups, including B’nai B’rith International and the Simon Wiesenthal Center, said they were “sickened” or “disgusted” with the display, and several, including the Coordination Committee of Jewish Organizations of Belgium (CCOJB), filed a complaint with Unia. In a statement, the groups said, “…at worst, this is a reproduction of the worst anti-Semitic caricatures of the Nazi era.” According to the Het Laatste Nieuws newspaper, a spokesperson for the European Commission stated, “It is unthinkable that such imagery is being paraded on European streets 70 years after the Holocaust.” While Unia did not assess the float to be illegal, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) condemned the parade and said it was considering removing the annual event from its List of Intangible Cultural Heritage. Citing freedom of expression, Aalst Mayor Christoph d’Haese said the float should be allowed. In early December, shortly before the date UNESCO had said it would announce its decision on the status of the carnival, d’Haese requested UNESCO remove the carnival from the heritage list, stating the organization was biased and had already made the decision to drop the carnival. On December 13, UNESCO removed the carnival from the heritage list, stating it had done so because of the “repetition of racist and anti-Semitic representations.”

In a February video posted on social media, students at Pater Jozefleten Catholic High School in the town of Melle were shown dressed as “Saudi Muslims.” One of the students dressed as a suicide bomber, wearing a black face mask and a belt of fake explosives. The video also showed female students wearing full veils and a fake imam leading students in a simulated prayer session. Following the appearance of the footage, there was a wave of criticism on social media. In a statement posted on the school’s Facebook page, the school principal later said the event in question was a school tradition, part of the pregraduation celebration for students in their senior year, during which the students dressed in different costumes on different days; their intention, he added, was not to insult anyone.

In April the Islamic Union in Brussels launched a “Good morning, I’m Muslim” campaign in that city and in the cities of Antwerp, Charleroi, Genk, Liege, and Namur. Muslim volunteers engaged in conversations with the public and distributed flyers and red roses in what organizers said was an effort to dispel anti-Muslim prejudice.

Section IV. U.S. Government Policy and Engagement

U.S. embassy officials discussed continued anti-Muslim and anti-Semitic incidents and sentiment in meetings with representatives from the Office of the Prime Minister; the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, Interior, and Justice; and regional governments. Embassy officials also discussed with government officials the continued efforts of Buddhist and Hindu groups to obtain government recognition and the status of the government’s plans to encourage more mosques to apply for official recognition as places of worship.

The Department of State Special Envoy to Monitor and Combat Anti-Semitism visited Brussels in May and met with head of the Jewish Consistoire Philippe Markiewicz, with Unia directors, and with the director of the human rights division at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The Special Envoy also met with Jewish groups on issues of concern, particularly the ban on ritual slaughter in Flanders and Wallonia. With the Ambassador, he visited the Jewish Museum in Brussels and attended an iftar for Jews and Muslims organized by the museum in a show of support for interreligious dialogue and tolerance.

The Ambassador and other embassy officials regularly met with religious leaders to discuss incidents of religious discrimination and ways to counter public manifestations of anti-Muslim and anti-Semitic sentiment. They continued engagement with activists from the Catholic, Muslim, and Jewish communities, including with leaders from the Consistoire (official representatives of authorities for Jewish community matters with the government), the Muslim Executive, and the CCOJB to promote interreligious understanding.

From October 2018 through March, the embassy sponsored an exhibit at the Jewish Museum featuring a well-known Jewish-American photographer. At the embassy’s request, museum officials brought in disadvantaged youth (mainly Muslim) for a guided tour of the exhibit and to talk about empowerment, community activism, and art as peaceful tools to bring about positive societal change. The Ambassador also toured the exhibit together with museum officials.

On October 2, the Ambassador visited the Great Synagogue of Europe in Brussels with head of the Consistoire Markiewicz and Great Rabbi Albert Guigui. They discussed the Jewish community’s concerns about the rise of anti-Semitism.

On October 28, the Ambassador and other embassy officials visited the Jewish Orthodox community of Antwerp at the invitation of a federal MP. Embassy officials discussed with community representatives issues of concern, including what they saw as the secular and anticlerical nature of the country, the ban on ritual slaughtering, and possible future hurdles to Jewish religious practices.

During Ramadan, the embassy hosted a panel discussion on Muslim identity featuring several prominent Muslims who had previously participated in embassy-funded exchange programs in the United States. The audience consisted of other former participants of embassy exchange programs, all of whom participated in an iftar immediately after the panel, where there was continued discussion of issues of religious freedom and tolerance.

The embassy used social media to promote religious freedom. In October the embassy posted to its Facebook page about the Ambassador’s visit to Antwerp, during which he met with Jewish community leaders to discuss anti-Semitism, visited the Antwerp Grand Synagogue, and paid his respects at the Holocaust Memorial monument for the Jews deported during WWII. In November the embassy posted on its Facebook page about the meeting in Ghent between the Ambassador and founders of CIRRA.

Luxembourg

Executive Summary

The constitution guarantees freedom of religion, including the right to practice it in public and manifest religious opinions, and prohibits compulsory participation in religious services or observance of religious groups’ days of rest. The judiciary upheld a ruling that appointed an external administrator to organize and monitor general assemblies and elections within the Protestant Consistory, the Protestant community’s leading interlocutor with the government. The main pastor of the Protestant community criticized the ruling, and two other court decisions, as infringing on its religious freedom; the consistory later revised its laws to obviate the appointment of a general assembly organizer. In February the government established a working group on outstanding Holocaust asset issues affecting noncitizens and stateless persons. In July parliament enacted a resolution calling on the government to adopt the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance (IHRA) working definition of anti-Semitism; the government had not done so by year’s end. In March the government assumed the chairmanship of the IHRA.

The president of the nongovernmental organization (NGO) Research and Information on Anti-Semitism in Luxembourg (RIAL), said it had registered 47 anti-Semitic incidents in the first six months of the year, compared with 26 in all of 2018. In December 2018, the national report of the NGO Islamophobia Observatory in Luxembourg (OIL), based on 2018 data, stated 60 percent of Muslims surveyed believed “Islamophobia” was present in the country, and 21 percent said they had experienced anti-Islamic incidents in 2018; 82 percent said Muslims were well integrated into society. A European Commission (EC) survey reported 19 percent of respondents believed anti-Semitism was a problem in the country, and 73 percent did not. Another EC survey found 25 percent of respondents believed religious discrimination was widespread in the country, while 66 percent said it was rare. There were reports of anti-Semitic postings on Facebook. RIAL reported that in October vandals in Esch-sur-Alzette painted a Jewish star and anti-Semitic graffiti at the entrance hall of an apartment building with a Jewish resident. In August the Muslim community stated the national tabloid Privat spread anti-Muslim bias when it published an article titled, “In This Manner Islam is Conquering Us.”

The Ambassador and U.S. other embassy representatives discussed religious freedom issues, including concerns of religious communities about such issues as court cases pertaining to the Protestant Consistory and implementation of the law regulating animal slaughter, with government officials at the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and State, as well as with leaders and representatives of religious groups. U.S. officials, including the Special Envoy for Holocaust Issues, discussed with government and religious leaders how the government was addressing outstanding Holocaust-era restitution issues and encouraged the government to establish the working group on outstanding Holocaust asset issues.

Section I. Religious Demography

The U.S. government estimates the total population at 617,000 (midyear 2019 estimate). By law, the government may not collect personal information related to religion and relies on religious groups to report the number of their adherents. A 2014 poll (the most recent) by the national survey institute TNS-ILRES reported that, among respondents aged 15 and older, 58 percent identify as Catholic, 17 percent as nonbeliever, 9 percent as atheist, 5 percent as agnostic, 2 percent as Protestant, 1 percent as Orthodox, 1 percent as Jehovah’s Witnesses; 3 percent as other (unspecified) Christian, and 1 percent as Muslim; 2 percent of respondents did not provide a reply. Based on information provided by religious community representatives, groups that together constitute less than 5 percent of the population include Baha’is, members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, and members of the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God.

Muslim community representatives estimate there are between 18,000 and 20,000 Muslims, mainly from southeastern Europe and the Middle East and their descendants.

Jewish community representatives estimate there are 1,500 Jews.

Section II. Status of Government Respect for Religious Freedom

Legal Framework

The constitution guarantees freedom of religion, including the freedom to practice religion in public and manifest religious opinions, as long as no crime is committed in exercising that freedom. While the constitution guarantees the right to assemble peacefully without prior authorization, it stipulates open-air religious or other meetings are subject to laws and police regulations. The constitution prohibits compulsory participation in or attendance at church services or observance of religious days of rest and stipulates that a civil marriage ceremony must precede a religious marriage ceremony for the state to recognize it. The constitution provides for the regulation of relations between religious groups and the state, including the role of the state in appointing and dismissing religious clergy and the publication of documents by religious groups, through conventions between the state and individual religious groups. These conventions are subject to parliamentary review.

The government has formally approved conventions with six religious groups, which it supports financially with a fixed amount (adjusted yearly for inflation) partly based on the number of adherents each group reported having in 2016. The six groups are the Roman Catholic Church; Greek, Russian, Romanian, and Serbian Orthodox Churches as one community; Anglican Church; Reformed Protestant Church of Luxembourg and Protestant Church of Luxembourg as one community; Jewish community; and Muslim community. To qualify for a convention with the state, a religious community must be a recognized world religion and establish an official and stable representative body with which the government can interact. Groups without signed conventions, including the Baha’i Faith and the New Apostolic Church, operate freely but do not receive state funding.

The government funding levels for the six religious groups are specified in each convention and remain the same every year except for adjustments for inflation. The original funding levels established in 2016 were: 6.75 million euros ($7.58 million) to the Catholic community; 450,000 euros ($506,000) to the Protestant community; 450,000 euros ($506,000) to the Muslim community; 315,000 euros ($354,000) to the Jewish community; 285,000 euros ($320,000) to the Orthodox community; and 125,000 euros ($140,000) to the Anglican community. Under the law, clergy of recognized religious groups hired in 2016 or earlier continue to receive their salaries from the government and are grandfathered into the government-funded pension system. The law further provides for a transitional period in which the government does not disburse the funding under the convention should the total amount of salaries be above the funding level, disburses the difference should the total amount of salaries fall below the funding level, and disburses the entire funding level should the total amount of salaries equal zero. The pensions of grandfathered clergy are not taken into consideration in calculating the total amount of salaries.

Religious groups must present their accounting books to the government for review to verify they have spent government funds in accordance with laws and regulations. Under the conventions, government funding to a religious community may be cancelled if the government determines the religious community is not upholding any of the three mutually agreed principles: respect for human rights, national law, and public order.

The law prohibits covering of the face in certain specific locations, such as government buildings and public hospitals or schools, or on public transportation. The prohibition applies to all forms of face coverings, including, but not limited to, full-body veils. Violators are subject to a fine of between 25 and 250 euros ($28-$280). There is no prohibition against individuals wearing face coverings on the street.

The law requires the stunning of animals before slaughter, with exceptions only for hunting and fishing. Violators are subject to a fine of between 251 and 200,000 euros ($280-$225,000) and possible imprisonment for between eight days and three years. The law does not prohibit the sale or importation of halal or kosher meat.

By law, public schools may not teach religion classes, but students are required to take an ethics course called Life and Society. The ethics course covers religion, primarily from a historical perspective.

There are laws and mechanisms in place to address property restitution, including for Holocaust victims. These laws do not apply to noncitizens who resided in the country between 1930 and 1945.

Under the penal code anti-religious and anti-Semitic statements are punishable by imprisonment for between eight days and six months and/or a fine of between 251 and 25,000 euros ($280-$28,100).

The country is a party to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

Government Practices

In January the Appeals Court confirmed the appointment of an external administrator (administrateur ad hoc) to organize the next elections of the Protestant Consistory’s chairing committee. The consistory is the leading institution for Protestant religious affairs and the denomination’s official interlocutor with the government. The ruling stemmed from court challenges and appeals in 2017 and 2018 based on internal consistory disagreements over its statutes, leadership, and the chairing committee’s management of consistory property and finances.

In May the Court of Cassation (high-level appeals court) upheld a 2018 ruling by the District Court that permitted the appointment of an external administrator to organize two extraordinary general assemblies of the consistory. That ruling was prompted by a 2017 request by several consistory leaders to the court to appoint an administrator to convene the general assemblies, citing irregularities in organizing and running previous assemblies.

The case of a woman who sued in 2015 after the Protestant Consistory revoked her right to vote in chairing committee elections was ongoing in the Appeals Court at year’s end. The consistory acted after discovering the woman was a Catholic. In 2017, the District Court ruled the consistory had wrongfully revoked her voting right. The consistory appealed the decision the same year.

In September the pastor of the Protestant Trinity Church, who was also the main pastor of the Protestant community in the country (appointed by the Protestant Consistory) and a member of the chairing committee of the Protestant Consistory, criticized the courts’ rulings in all three cases as infringing on the Protestant community’s religious freedom. The pastor said the judge should have dismissed the cases because they pertained to internal church matters.

In April the Administrative Court annulled a 2017 decision by then-minister of sustainable development and infrastructure Francois Bausch, who refused to extend the period of validity of a driving license on the grounds that the driver, a Muslim woman, refused “categorically to produce a bareheaded (without headscarf) photo.” The court ruled the ministry’s decision was void because it cited regulations adopted without the required Council of State approval. The driver’s lawyer had submitted the case to the court in 2018, arguing that, for his client, showing her hair on a nonprivate picture constituted “a violation of her privacy and her private life, not to mention the interference it would bring to her religious belief and practice.” According to OIL, “It is deplorable once again to note that the Muslim community was forced to resort to the courts to have their rights respected in a procedure which lasted three long years.”

According to police, there were no apprehensions for violation of the law banning facial coverings in certain public places in the first nine months of the year.

The Jewish Consistory – the Jewish community’s official representative with the government – and members of the Muslim community said they remained concerned the law requiring the stunning of animals prior to their slaughter infringed on their religious rights, although they had already been importing meat from abroad, because there were no halal or kosher slaughterhouses in the country.

The Ministry of Education continued to grant excused absences from school to children wishing to attend local religious celebrations, provided they first obtained permission from the local school board.

The Jewish Consistory expressed concern that the government did not make significant progress on resolution of Holocaust-era claims during the year, including for foreign citizens. According to the Jewish community, all Holocaust-related real property claims by citizens had been settled but claims by non-nationals remained unresolved. In February the government created a working group on outstanding Holocaust asset issues to resolve questions about compensation of destroyed property owned by Holocaust victims and survivors who were either citizens of a foreign country or stateless in 1930-45. The working group was also examining open questions about bank accounts and insurance contracts of Holocaust victims and survivors, both nationals and non-nationals, involving banks and insurance companies based in the country. Members of the working group included representatives of the government, the local Jewish community, and the World Jewish Restitution Organization (WJRO).

In March the country assumed the chairmanship of the IHRA and appointed Ambassador George Santer as Chair.

In May members of the Parliamentary Committee on Foreign Affairs discussed combatting anti-Semitism and protecting the Jewish community with EC Coordinator on Combatting Anti-Semitism Katharina von Schnurbein.

On May 15, the EC representation in the country hosted a conference with von Schnurbein and IHRA Chair Santer to discuss anti-Semitism, racism, and Holocaust denial. Local and national politicians, members of the public, and members of the European Parliament attended.

In November the National Museum of Resistance in Esch-sur-Alzette, which covers the nation’s history from 1940 to 1945 and is owned by the municipality, cancelled a debate entitled “Is Criticism of Israel Anti-Semitic?” Participants included members of the Jewish community as well as representatives of the Committee for a Just Peace in the Middle East (CPJPO), which, according to media reports, was known for its criticism of the IHRA’s definition of anti-Semitism and Israel’s policies. According to a member of the Jewish community, the museum canceled the event after the CPJPO suggested the debate would not be impartial. Director Frank Schroeder stated concerns over impartiality were unfounded but that he decided to cancel the event because the museum could no longer guarantee “a serene debate on the issue.”

According to a representative of the Ministry of State in charge of religious affairs, of the six religious groups with conventions with the government, only the Muslim (473,000 euros – $531,000) and Anglican communities (131,500 euros – $148,000) received their full funding level during the year; the Jewish community received the difference only (30,000 euros – $33,700) and the Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox communities received no funding at all from the conventions because salaries exceeded the allotted amount.

The government again provided 615,000 euros ($691,000) to the Luxembourg School of Religion and Society (LSRS) to promote, among other objectives, research, education, and collaboration with religious groups that have signed agreements with the state. The government agreed to provide the funding annually to the LSRS between 2018 and 2021 as part of an agreement with the Catholic Church’s Major Seminary (Grand Seminaire).

According to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the government granted refugee status to 653 persons during the year, the majority of whom were Muslim. The Organization for Welcome and Integration, an entity of the Ministry of Family and Integration, stated the government provided Muslim refugees access to mosques, halal meals, and, for those who requested it, same-sex housing.

Section III. Status of Societal Respect for Religious Freedom

RIAL President Bernard Gottlieb, whose group investigates anti-Semitism in the country, said it had registered 47 anti-Semitic incidents during the year, compared with 26 in 2018 and 17 in 2017. According to RIAL, these incidents were nonviolent, and more than 50 percent related to Israel, but RIAL stated the latter incidents were anti-Semitic, not just anti-Israel. RIAL said it monitored incidents and Facebook postings but not other social media platforms. According to RIAL, 43 out of 47 cases were Facebook posts. The remaining ones were an instance of anti-Semitic graffiti, an anti-Semitic/homophobic sticker, a letter to the editor in the national daily Tageblatt questioning the loyalty of Jews, and harassment, including online, against Gottlieb.

At a press conference at the Chamber of Deputies on July 1, Gottlieb and Francois Moyse, a lawyer and member of the country’s Jewish community, announced they had recorded 30 anti-Semitic incidents in the first six months of the year. They called on the government to adopt the IHRA working definition of anti-Semitism and for “a new impetus for public action” against anti-Semitism.

On July 21, according to RIAL, a Facebook user accused Gottlieb of “working [for] a foreign power” and of “taking his orders from a killing country.” Gottlieb reported the Facebook post to the prosecutor’s office in a letter in August. The prosecutor assigned the case to the Judicial Police. The case was still with police at year’s end.

On April 9, according to RIAL, a Facebook user posted a message reading, “Zionism is not just Israel … it is above all taking control of finance since 1913 (FED[eral Reserve]), politics, media of all the West, a destructive empire that pushes the world to overconsume and live on credits at the expense of the poor countries and future generations.” The post included a picture of two blood-stained arms, one wearing a U.S. flag and the other an Israeli flag on the sleeve, shaking hands.

In October, according to RIAL, one or more unidentified persons painted a Jewish star and vulgar, anti-Semitic graffiti in the entrance hall of an apartment building in Esch-sur-Alzette, where one resident was Jewish. The Jewish resident filed an official complaint with police. There was no further information on the status of the case.

Radio and television broadcaster RTL reported that in February, during an online discussion on the site of the public Facebook group “Luxembourg 2019 Stop the Migration Pact Petition 1147,” a participant shared the Facebook page of Minister for Family Affairs and Integration and Minister for the Greater Region Corinne Cahen with the caption “Judenpaak” (“pack of Jews”). Cahen, who is Jewish, filed an official complaint with police, and in October the accused went on trial for hate speech. The man said he did not know Cahen was Jewish and the expression was common where he grew up and used to signify that one did not trust someone. The man was sentenced to pay a fine of 1,000 euros ($1,100). He did not appeal the sentence.

In December 2018, OIL released the results of a poll of 340 randomly chosen Muslims – 195 men and 145 women – asking them about anti-Muslim incidents they had experienced or witnessed in 2017 and 2018. Approximately 60 percent of respondents said they believed “Islamophobia” was present in the country, particularly in the workplace (78 percent), media (61 percent), and politics (52 percent). Eighty-two percent opined that the country’s Muslims were well integrated into society. According to the survey, targets of Islamophobia reported only 7 percent of such incidents, either formally or informally. Approximately 21 percent of respondents reported experiencing anti-Muslim incidents in 2018, compared with 25 percent in 2017. The incidents cited were primarily verbal and nonviolent and manifested at work (53 percent), in media (46 percent), on the streets, (31 percent), in politics (31 percent) or in shops (19 percent). Most incidents cited involved another person using derogatory words (60 percent), offensive jokes (54 percent), or insults (42 percent). Many incidents were classified under multiple categories, resulting in percentages adding up to more than 100 percent. In addition, 26 percent of respondents reported witnessing anti-Muslim incidents in 2018, compared with 38 percent in the previous year.

According to the OIL survey results, approximately 38 percent of women who wore a hijab, turban, or niqab reported experiencing discrimination for being Muslim in 2018 (46 percent in 2017), compared with 13 percent of Muslim women in 2018 who did not wear a face or head covering (14 percent in 2017).

According to OIL, certain parliamentary questions tended to stigmatize the Muslim community. OIL described the questions as “very dangerous” as they could generate a “feeling of inequality and exclusion” among some Muslim citizens. For example, according to OIL, on February 26, 2019, Marc Goergen, Member of Parliament for the Pirate Party, asked Minister of Agriculture Romain Schneider how much halal meat has been imported since 2015, if the meat was marked as halal when sold, and if the sale of halal meat conformed with the law. Schneider replied on March 25 that he could not say how much halal meat had been imported, but that it had to be marked as halal, and that importing and selling such meat was legal.

On March 14, Gilles Roth, Member of Parliament for the Christian Social People’s Party, asked Prime Minister Xavier Bettel, in his capacity as Minister for Religious Affairs, about Bettel’s possible consent to the construction of a mosque with a minaret in the center of Luxembourg City. In his reply, Bettel stated he had met Faruk Licina, President of the Muslim community, to discuss the shortage of prayer space for Muslims in Luxembourg City but that he had not committed to the construction of a mosque.

In January the EC published a Special Eurobarometer survey of perceptions of anti-Semitism based on interviews it conducted in December 2018 in each European Union (EU)-member state. According to the survey, 19 percent of residents believed anti-Semitism was a problem in Luxembourg, and 73 percent did not; 19 percent believed it had increased over the previous five years. The percentage who believed that anti-Semitism was a problem in nine different categories was as follows: Holocaust denial, 18 percent; on the internet, 22 percent; anti-Semitic graffiti or vandalism, 15 percent; expression of hostility or threats against Jews in public places, 14 percent; desecration of Jewish cemeteries, 15 percent; physical attacks against Jews, 14 percent; anti-Semitism in schools and universities, 14 percent; anti-Semitism in political life, 13 percent; and anti-Semitism in media, 17 percent.

In May the EC carried out a study in each EU-member state on perceptions of discrimination and published the results in September. According to the findings, 25 percent of respondents believed discrimination on the basis of religion or belief was widespread in Luxembourg, while 66 percent said it was rare; 85 percent would be comfortable with having a person of a different religion than the majority of the population occupy the highest elected political position in the country. In addition, 91 percent said they would be comfortable working closely with a Christian, 89 percent said they would be with an atheist, 89 percent with a Jew, 88 percent with a Buddhist, and 85 percent with a Muslim. Asked how they would feel if their child were in a “love relationship” with an individual belonging to various groups, 89 percent said they would be comfortable if the partner were Christian, 85 percent if atheist, 85 percent if Jewish, 82 percent if Buddhist, and 75 percent if Muslim.

In August the national tabloid Privat ran a front page story entitled, “In This Manner Islam is Conquering Us.” The article stated, “More and more, Islam is influencing everyday life in Luxembourg.” Among other statements, it said the Muehlenbach Soccer Club, a local soccer club run by Bosnian Muslims, had banned alcohol and pork from the soccer grounds. The article was accompanied by a picture of a stand-alone mosque photo-shopped into the center of Luxembourg City. (There are no mosques in the city center, and all mosques are housed in existing buildings.) A member of the Muslim community said the tabloid was spreading anti-Muslim bias.

OIL reported several instances of anti-Muslim graffiti in close proximity to a refugee center in Kirchberg in Luxembourg City. The graffiti, written on street signs, street curbs, and bus stops, included statements reading “Islam = Terror,” “Islam = Nazi,” “No Migration,” as well as obscenities and insults directed at Islam and the Prophet Muhammad. The municipality removed the graffiti.

On September 28, according to RIAL, a man commented on Facebook about an article on a Jewish Holocaust survivor. The man denied the fact, scope, and mechanisms of the Holocaust, accused Israel of inventing the Holocaust for financial reasons, and drew comparisons between Israel and the Nazis. He wrote that “none of these supposed gas chambers existed […] the only real Holocaust that exists are the 60 million victims, including a large part of Germans killed by allied bombs,” and, “one day the machinations of the NAtional ZIonists will be uncovered.” A member of RIAL filed an official complaint to police on September 30. There was no additional information on the case at year’s end.

According to media, unknown individuals placed a sticker reading “Jewish Faggots” on the postal box of the openly homosexual rabbi of Esch-sur-Alzette in September. Police were investigating the incident at year’s end. Esch-sur-Alzette Mayor Georges Mischo condemned the act and anti-Semitism during a September World War II commemoration, donning a kippah and gay pride sash during his speech.

The Council of Religious Groups that Signed an Agreement with the State (CCC) met four times but did not disclose information about its deliberations. Archbishop Hollerich and Grand Rabbi Alain David Nacache continued to serve as president and vice president, respectively. The New Apostolic Church and the Baha’i Faith, which did not have signed conventions with the government, continued to participate in CCC meetings as permanently invited guests without voting rights.

The LSRS hosted several conferences and expositions throughout the year to promote religious freedom and tolerance. On February 28 and March 1, the LSRS hosted an international conference on the Muslim community in the country and Europe. On May 13, the LSRS, in collaboration with the EC representation in the country, the German embassy, and the Anglican Church, hosted a lecture by Professor Grace Davie, a British academic specializing in the sociology of religion, on the coexistence between religion and society.

Section IV. U.S. Government Policy and Engagement

Embassy representatives discussed religious freedom issues with government officials at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of State. In July embassy officials met with officials at the Ministry of State under Prime Minister and Minister for Religious Affairs Xavier Bettel to discuss government efforts to promote religious freedom, its interaction with the CCC and religious communities, and concerns of religious communities about such issues as the court ruling regarding the Protestant Consistory, religious animal slaughter, and Holocaust-related restitution and compensation.

In February the Ambassador and the U.S. Special Envoy for Holocaust Issues, in tandem with representatives from the WJRO, met with high level officials, including Prime Minister Bettel, to facilitate the establishment of the working group on outstanding Holocaust asset issues. In September embassy officials and the U.S. Special Envoy for Holocaust Issues met with a government representative of the working group to discuss Holocaust-related restitution and compensation and the working group’s progress.

In April the Ambassador visited the LSRS, where he delivered a speech in which he described religious freedom as “the most sacred of all rights” after joining representatives from the Catholic, Protestant, Anglican, Jewish, and Muslim communities in an interreligious prayer.

In May the Ambassador hosted a reception in honor of Ambassador Santer’s accession to the chairmanship of the IHRA. Attendees included representatives of the Jewish community. In his remarks, the U.S. Ambassador underscored the importance of Holocaust remembrance and education.

In September the Ambassador met with representatives of the Jewish community to discuss restitution, Holocaust education, and combating anti-Semitism.

In July a senior embassy representative met with President of the Muslim community Licina. The representative highlighted the embassy’s support for religious tolerance and interest in continuing to work with the Muslim community.

Embassy officials met with leaders and representatives of other religious groups, including the Jewish, Protestant, Catholic, the New Apostolic Church, and Baha’i communities, and the Alliance of Humanists, Atheists and Agnostics. They discussed the continuing effects of the 2016 law that reorganized the relationship between religious groups and the state.

The embassy regularly used social media to promote religious freedom. For example, it posted a Facebook message in August for the International Day Commemorating the Victims of Acts of Violence Based on Religion or Belief.

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