Kiribati is a constitutional multiparty republic. The president exercises executive authority. Following legislative elections, the House of Assembly nominates at least three and no more than four presidential candidates from among its members, and the public then elects the president for a four-year term. Citizens elected Taneti Maamau president in March 2016. Observers considered the election free and fair. Observers considered the two-stage parliamentary elections held in December 2015 and January 2016 to be free and fair.
The Police and Prisons Service, under the Ministry of Justice, maintains internal security. The country has no military force. Civilian authorities maintained effective control over the police.
Significant human rights issues included: corruption; criminalization of consensual sexual activity between men, although the law was not enforced; and child labor.
The government took steps to investigate officials who committed human rights abuses, and impunity was not a problem.
The Kingdom of Tonga is a constitutional monarchy. The Legislative Assembly, a parliamentary body consisting of 17 popularly elected members and nine nobles selected by their peers, elects the prime minister. Following the November 2017 election, which international observers characterized as generally free and fair, Prime Minister Samuela ‘Akilisi Pohiva was returned to office for a second term. After Pohiva’s death in September, the Legislative Assembly elected Pohiva Tu’i’onetoa to replace him. While Tu’i’onetoa and his cabinet are responsible for most government functions, King Tupou VI, the nobility, and their representatives retain significant authority.
The Tonga Police Force maintains internal security and reports to the Ministry of Police and Fire Services. Civilian authorities maintained effective control over the security forces.
Significant human rights issues included: corruption; and a law criminalizing consensual same-sex sexual conduct between adults that remains on the books although it is not enforced.
The government took steps to prosecute officials who committed abuses. There was one case of torture, which the government took steps to address.
Tuvalu is a constitutional parliamentary democracy. Observers judged that parliamentary elections held September 9 were free and fair, with seven new members elected to the 16-member parliament. There are no formal political parties. Following the elections, parliament selected Kausea Natano as prime minister.
The national police service, under the Office of the Prime Minister, maintains internal security. The country has no military force. Civilian authorities maintained effective control over the security forces.
Significant human rights abuses included laws criminalizing sexual activities between men, although the law was not enforced.
The government took steps to investigate human rights abuses, and impunity was not a problem.
Vanuatu is a multiparty parliamentary democracy with a freely elected government. Following a snap election in 2016, which observers considered generally free and fair, parliament elected Charlot Salwai as prime minister. The president is head of state. Parliament elected Tallis Obed Moses president in July 2017.
The national police maintain internal security. The Vanuatu Mobile Force, a paramilitary police unit, is responsible for external security but also has some domestic-security responsibilities. Both agencies report to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Civilian authorities maintained effective control over the security forces.
Significant human rights issues included corruption, and minimal progress in reducing the worst forms of child labor.
The government made efforts to prosecute and punish abuses by officials, although some police impunity persisted.