Rwanda has a history of strong economic growth, high rankings in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Index, and a reputation for low corruption. Rwandan GDP grew 9.5 percent in 2019 before declining 3.4 percent in 2020 due to the global COVID-19 pandemic, the first recession since 1994. In late 2020 and early 2021, the Government of Rwanda (GOR) took significant policy reforms intended to return the economy to growth, improve Rwanda’s competitiveness in selected strategic growth sectors, increase foreign direct investment (FDI), and attract foreign companies to operate in the newly-created Kigali International Financial Centre. In February 2021, the GOR amended the Law on Investment Promotion and Facilitation (Investment Code), the Law on Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorism Financing, and the Company Act. The GOR passed a new law governing partnerships and a law governing mutual legal assistance in criminal matters. The Rwanda Financial Intelligence Centre (FIC) was also created to curb money laundering and terrorism finance. The country presents a number of foreign direct investment (FDI) opportunities in sectors including: manufacturing; infrastructure; energy distribution and transmission; off-grid energy; agriculture and agro-processing; affordable housing; tourism; services; and information and communications technology (ICT). The new Investment Code includes equal treatment for both foreigners and nationals in certain operations, free transfer of funds, and compensation against expropriation; the 2008 U.S.-Rwanda Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT) reinforces this treatment.
According to the National Institute of Statistics for Rwanda (NISR), Rwanda attracted $462 million in FDI inflows in 2018, representing five percent of GDP. Rwanda had a total of $3.2 billion of FDI stock in 2018, the latest year data is available. In 2020, the Rwanda Development Board (RDB) reported registering $1.3 billion in new investment commitments (a 48 percent decline from 2019, and an 89 percent decline from 2018, due to COVID-19), mainly in manufacturing, construction, and real estate. FDI accounted for 51 percent of registered projects. With $324.7 million committed in seven projects, the United States topped origination countries with 13.2 percent of the total investment commitments to Rwanda.
Due to the economic impacts of COVID-19, Standard and Poor’s downgraded the Rwandan economic outlook from “Stable” to “Negative,” citing higher public debt and deteriorating exports, tourism revenues, and diaspora remittances. Moody’s changed Rwanda’s outlook from stable to negative due to potential lowering of returns on past GOR’s investments in transportation and tourism that would “raise credit risks associated with Rwanda’s relatively high debt burden, which had been rising before the coronavirus shock and is being exacerbated by it.”
Government debt has rapidly increased over the past few years to more than 70 percent of GDP in 2021, but most of these loans are on highly concessionary terms. The result is that the GOR holds cheaper debt than the average low-income country while maintaining a higher debt-carrying capacity. Development institutions such as the World Bank, African Development Bank, International Monetary Fund, and others have offered to lessen or suspend debt repayment terms for less developed countries such as Rwanda because of COVID-19. However, as of March 2021, Rwandan authorities had not requested debt service suspension from official bilateral creditors as envisaged under the Debt Service Suspension Initiative (DSSI) supported by the G-20 and the Paris Club. As of March 2021, Rwanda had neither incurred external payment arrears nor accumulated domestic arrears.
Many companies report that although it is easy to start a business in Rwanda, it can be difficult to operate a profitable or sustainable business due to a variety of hurdles and constraints. These include the country’s landlocked geography and resulting high freight transport costs, a small domestic market, limited access to affordable financing, and payment delays with government contracts. Government interventions designed to support overall economic growth can significantly impact investors, with some expressing frustration that they were not consulted prior to the abrupt implementation of government policies and regulations that affected their businesses.
While electricity and water supply have improved, businesses may continue to experience intermittent outages (especially during peak times) due to distribution challenges. The GOR is planning to meet more than 100 percent of the country’s power generation needs through various power projects in development. Some investors report difficulties in obtaining foreign exchange from time to time, which could be attributed to Rwanda running a persistent trade deficit.
|TI Corruption Perceptions Index||2020||49 of 180||https://www.transparency.org/en/cpi/2020/index/rwa|
|World Bank’s Doing Business Report||2020||38 of 190||https://www.doingbusiness.org/en/
|Global Innovation Index||2020||91 of 131||https://www.globalinnovationindex.org/analysis-economy|
|U.S. FDI in partner country ($M USD, historical stock positions)||2020||N/A||https://apps.bea.gov/international/factsheet//|
|World Bank GNI per capita||2019||$830||http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/NY.GNP.PCAP.CD|
Note: According to NISR, stock of U.S. FDI in the country stood at $182.67 million in 2018 (most recent data available)
1. Openness To, and Restrictions Upon, Foreign Investment
Policies Towards Foreign Direct Investment
Over the past decade, the GOR has undertaken a series of policy reforms intended to improve the investment climate, wean Rwanda’s economy off foreign assistance, and increase FDI levels. Rwanda enjoyed strong economic growth until the start of the COVID-19 pandemic in March 2020, averaging over seven percent annual GPD growth over the prior decade. Rwanda also enjoys high rankings in the World Bank’s Doing Business report (38 out of 190 economies in 2020 worldwide, and second best in Africa) and a reputation for low corruption. In 2020, Rwanda experienced a 3.4 percent GDP contraction, marking its first recession since the 1994 genocide.
The RDB ( ) was established in 2006 to fast-track investment projects by integrating all government agencies responsible for the entire investor experience under one roof. This includes key agencies responsible for business registration, investment promotion, environmental compliance clearances, export promotion, and other necessary approvals. New investors can register online at the RDB’s website (https://rdb.rw/e-services) and receive a certificate in as few as six hours, and the agency’s “one-stop shop” helps investors secure required approvals, certificates, and work permits. RDB states its investment priorities are: 1) export; 2) manufacturing including -textiles and apparel, electronics, information communication and technology equipment, large scale agricultural operations excluding coffee and tea, pharmaceuticals, processing in wood, glass and ceramics, processing and value addition in mining, agricultural equipment and other related industries that fall in these categories; 3) energy generation, transmission and distribution; 4) information and communication technologies, business process outsourcing and financial services; 5) mining activities relating to mineral exploration; 6) transport, logistics and electric mobility; 7) construction or operations of specialized innovation parks or specialized industrial parks; 8) affordable housing; 9) tourism, which includes hotels, adventure tourism and agro-tourism; 10) horticulture and cultivation of other high-value plants; 11) creative arts in the subsector of the film industry; 12) skills development in areas where the country has limited skills and capacity.
In February 2021, Rwanda made significant changes to the Investment Code to address previous investor complaints and included new incentives to attract investments in strategic growth sectors. The GOR created the Rwanda Financial Intelligence Centre (FIC), passed a law on Anti-Money Laundering and Counter-Terrorism Financing, and passed a law on Mutual Legal Assistance in Criminal Matters to fully criminalize money laundering and terrorism financing and align the country with OECD rules. The GOR amended the Company Act and passed a law on partnerships to allow professional service providers to register as partners rather than limited liability companies.
In 2020, The World Bank Ease of Doing Business report indicated that Rwanda made doing business easier by exempting newly formed small and medium businesses from paying for a trading license during their first two years of operation. In addition, the GOR reduced the time needed to obtain water and sewage connections to facilitate construction permits. It also began requiring construction professionals to obtain liability insurance. The country also upgraded its power grid infrastructure and improved its regulations on weekly rest, working hours, severance pay, and reemployment priority rules.
Several investors have said a top concern affecting their operations in Rwanda is that tax incentives included in deals negotiated or signed by the RDB are not fully honored by the Rwanda Revenue Authority (RRA). Investors further cite the inconsistent application of tax incentives and import duties as a significant challenge to doing business in Rwanda. For example, a few investors have said that customs officials have attempted to charge them duties based on their perception of the value of an import regardless of the actual purchase price.
Under Rwandan law, foreign firms should receive equal treatment regarding taxes and equal access to licenses, approvals, and procurement. Foreign firms should receive value added tax (VAT) rebates within 15 days of receipt by the RRA, but firms complain that the process for reimbursement can take months and occasionally years. Refunds can be further held up pending the results of RRA audits. A few investors cited punitive retroactive fines following audits that were concluded after many years. RRA aggressively enforces tax requirements and imposes penalties for errors – deliberate or not – in tax payments. Investors cited lack of coordination among ministries, agencies, and local government (districts) leading to inconsistencies in implementation of promised incentives. Others pointed to a lack of clarity on who the regulator is on certain matters. The U.S. Treasury Department’s Office of Technical Assistance (OTA) provided tax consultants to RRA to review auditing practices in Rwanda. The OTA program concluded in 2020 and produced a standardized tax audit handbook for RRA’s auditors to use. RRA has also instituted improvements to its systems that will automate certain processes and make many more processes digitized. Per RRA, it is now able to handle VAT claims in real time due to these changes.
Limits on Foreign Control and Right to Private Ownership and Establishment
Rwanda has neither statutory limits on foreign ownership or control nor any official economic or industrial strategy that discriminates against foreign investors. Local and foreign investors have the right to own and establish business enterprises in all forms of remunerative activity.
Foreign nationals may hold shares in locally incorporated companies. The GOR has continued to privatize state holdings with the government, ruling party, and military continuing to play a dominant role in Rwanda’s private sector. Foreign investors can acquire real estate but with a general limit on land ownership according to the 2013 land law. While local investors can acquire land through leasehold agreements that extend to a maximum of 99 years, foreign investors can be restricted to leases of 49 to 99 years with the possibility of renewal. Freehold is granted only to Rwandan citizens for properties of at least five hectares but may also be granted to foreigners for properties in designated Special Economic Zones, on a reciprocal basis, or for land co-owned with Rwandan citizens (if Rwandan citizens own at least 51 percent). However, according to an October 2020 draft law, freehold tenure would continue for Rwandan citizens on lands of at least two hectares and freehold tenure for foreigners could be approved by a Presidential Order for exceptional circumstances of strategic national interests. Long-term leases (emphyteutic leases) in residential and commercial areas for both citizens and foreigners acquiring land through private means would be increased to 99 years compared to the current 20 and 30 years, respectively. As of April 2021, this draft law had not yet been finalized. The Investment Code includes equal treatment for foreigners and nationals regarding certain operations, free transfer of funds, and compensation against expropriation. In April 2018, Rwanda introduced new laws to curb capital flight. Management, loyalty, and technical fees a local subsidiary can remit to its related non-residential companies (parent company) are capped at two percent of turnover. Companies resolving to go beyond the cap are subject to a 30 percent corporate tax on turnover in addition to a 15 percent withholding tax and an 18 percent reserve charge.
Other Investment Policy Reviews
In February 2019, The World Trade Organization (WTO) published a Trade Policy Review for the East African Community (EAC) covering Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The report is available at:
RDB offers one of the fastest business registration processes in Africa. New investors can register online at RDB’s website ( ) or register in person at RDB offices in Kigali. Once RDB generates a certificate of registration, company tax identification and employer social security contribution numbers are automatically created. The RDB “One Stop Center” assists firms in acquiring visas and work permits, connections to electricity and water, and support in conducting required environmental impact assessments.
RDB is prioritizing additional reforms to improve the investment climate. In October 2020, RDB launched electronic auctioning to reduce fraud by increasing transparency. The new system reduces the time needed to enforce judgments, reducing court fees and allowing payments electronically. RDB hopes to amend the land policy to merge issuance of freehold titles and occupancy permits; introduce online notarization of property transfers; implement small claims procedure to allow self-representation in court and reduce attorney costs; and establish a commercial division at the Court of Appeal to fast-track commercial dispute resolution.
Rwanda promotes gender equality and has pioneered several projects to promote women entrepreneurs, including the creation of the Chamber of Women Entrepreneurs within the Rwanda Private Sector Federation (PSF). Both men and women have equal access to investment facilitation and protections.
The Investment Code provides incentives for internationalization. A small and medium registered investor or emerging investor with an investment project involved in export is entitled to a 150 percent tax deduction of all qualifying expenditures relating to internationalization including: 1) overseas marketing and public relations activities including launch of in-store promotions, road shows, overseas business or trade conferences; 2) participation in overseas trade fairs not supported by another existing initiative; 3) overseas business development costs; 4) market entry and research costs such as costs of establishing a legal entity in a foreign market, salary costs of employees stationed in foreign market, and cost of analysis of market opportunities, supply chain and entry requirements. The Commissioner General of RRA approves qualifying expenditures in consultation with the CEO of RDB. Eligible registered investors receive pre-approval of qualifying expenditures through a joint review process administered by the RRA, RDB and the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MINICOM). An eligible registered investor may claim the tax deduction on a maximum of USD 100,000 of qualifying expenditures in each year. There are no restrictions in place limiting domestic firms seeking to invest abroad.
2. Bilateral Investment Agreements and Taxation Treaties
Rwanda is a member of the WTO, the East African Community (EAC), Economic Community of the Great Lakes, the Economic Community of Central African States, and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). Rwanda ratified the African Continental Free Trade Area agreement in March 2018, and the agreement entered into force in 2019, but its implications for the region remain unclear.
The United States and Rwanda signed a Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) in 2006 and a bilateral investment treaty (BIT) in 2008. Rwanda has active BITs with Germany (1969), the Belgium-Luxemburg Economic Union (1985), and the Republic of Korea (2013). Rwanda signed BITs with Mauritius (2001), South Africa (2000), Turkey (2016), Morocco (2016), the United Arab Emirates (2016), and Qatar (2018), but these treaties have yet to enter into force. Rwanda signed the Economic Partnership Agreement between the EAC and the European Union; this agreement has not yet entered into force.
Rwanda does not have a bilateral taxation treaty with the United States. Rwanda has double taxation agreements with Barbados, Mauritius, the Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union, the Bailiwick of Jersey, Singapore, South Africa, Morocco, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Qatar.
After Rwanda implemented higher tariffs on imports of secondhand clothing and footwear in 2016, the U.S. government partially suspended African Growth and Opportunities Act (AGOA) benefits for apparel products from Rwanda, effective May 2018. Many other Rwandan exports to the United States are still eligible for trade preferences under the Generalized System of Preferences and AGOA. In 2020, Rwanda enjoyed a trade surplus of $24 million with the United States due in large part to AGOA-qualified exports of coffee, tea, and tree nuts.
3. Legal Regime
Transparency of the Regulatory System
The GOR generally employs transparent policies and effective laws largely consistent with international norms. Rwanda is a member of the UN Conference on Trade and Development’s international network of transparent investment procedures. The Rwanda eRegulations system is an online database designed to bring transparency to investment procedures in Rwanda. Investors can find further information on administrative procedures at: https://businessprocedures.rdb.rw/.
The GOR publishes Rwandan laws and regulations in the Official Gazette and online at . Government institutions generally have clear rules and procedures, but implementation can sometimes be uneven. Investors have cited breaches of contracts and incentive promises and the short time given to comply with changes in government policies as hurdles to complying with regulations. For example, in 2019 the Parliament passed a law banning single use plastic containers. Investors in the beverage and agro-processing sectors expressed concern that the law would have a serious impact on their operations, that alternative packaging was not available in some cases, and that the GOR did not consult effectively with stakeholders before submitting it. The law built on a ban on the manufacture and use of polyethylene bags introduced in 2008. Enforcement has not taken full effect as of April 2021.
There is no formal mechanism to publish draft laws for public comment, although civil society sometimes has the opportunity to review them. There is no informal regulatory process managed by nongovernmental organizations. Regulations are usually developed rapidly to achieve policy goals and sometimes lack a basis in scientific or data-driven assessments. Scientific studies and quantitative analysis (if any) conducted on the impact of regulations are not generally made publicly available for comment. Regulators do not publicize comments they receive. Public finances and debt obligations are generally made available to the public before budget enactment. Finances for State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) are not publicly available. Civil society organizations may request them with a legitimate reason, but these requests are not routinely granted.
There is no government effort to restrict foreign participation in industry standards-setting consortia or organizations. Legal, regulatory, and accounting systems are generally transparent and consistent with international norms but are not always enforced. The Rwanda Utility Regulation Agency (RURA), the Office of the Auditor General (OAG), the Anticorruption Division of the RRA, the Rwanda Standards Board (RSB), the National Tender Board, and the Rwanda Environment Management Authority also enforce regulations. Consumer protection associations exist but are largely ineffective. The business community has been able to lobby the government and provide feedback on some draft government policies through the PSF, a business association with strong ties to the government. In some cases, the PSF has welcomed foreign investors’ efforts to positively influence government policies. However, some investors have criticized the PSF for advocating for the government’s positions more so than conveying business concerns to the government.
The American Chamber of Commerce launched in November 2019, and a European Business Chamber of Commerce launched in March 2020. Both are coordinating policy advocacy efforts to improve the business environment for American, European, and other foreign firms in Rwanda. The Chinese also have a Chamber of Commerce registered in China that is active in Rwanda.
International Regulatory Considerations
Rwanda is a member of the EAC Standards Technical Management Committee. Approved EAC measures are generally incorporated into the Rwandan regulatory system within six months and are published in the Official Gazette like other domestic laws and regulations. Rwanda is also a member of the Standards Technical Committee for the International Standardization Organization, the African Organization for Standardization, and the International Electrotechnical Commission. Rwanda is a member of the International Organization for Legal Metrology and the International Metrology Confederation. The Rwanda Standards Board represents Rwanda at the African Electrotechnical Commission. Rwanda has been a member of the WTO since May 22, 1996 and notifies the WTO Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade on draft technical regulations.
Legal System and Judicial Independence
The Rwandan legal system was originally based on the Belgian civil law system. However, since the renovation of the legal framework in 2002, the introduction of a new constitution in 2003, and the country’s entrance to the Commonwealth in 2009, there is now a mixture of civil law and common law. Rwanda’s courts address commercial disputes and facilitate enforcement of property and contract rights. Rwanda’s judicial system suffers from a lack of resources and capacity but continues to improve. Investors occasionally state that the government takes a casual approach to contract sanctity and sometimes fails to enforce court judgments in a timely fashion. The government generally respects judicial independence, though domestic and international observers have noted that outcomes in high-profile politically sensitive cases appeared predetermined.
In August 2018, the GOR created a Court of Appeals to reduce backlogs and expedite the appeal process without going to the Supreme Court. The new Court of Appeals arbitrates cases handled by the High Court, Commercial High Court, and Military High Court. The Supreme Court continues to decide on cases of injustice filed from the Office of the Ombudsman and on constitutional interpretation. Based on Article 15 of Law nº 76/2013 of 11/09/2013, the Office of the Ombudsman has the authority to request that the Supreme Court reconsider and review judgments rendered at the last instance by ordinary, commercial, and military courts. More information on the review process can be found at . A tax court is yet to be established in Rwanda. In 2019, the RDB announced the government’s intent to create a commercial division at the Court of Appeal to fast-track resolution of commercial disputes.
Laws and Regulations on Foreign Direct Investment
National laws governing commercial establishments, investments, privatization and public investments, land, and environmental protection are the primary directives governing investments in Rwanda. Since 2011, the government has reformed tax payment processes and enacted additional laws on insolvency and arbitration. The Investment Code establishes policies on FDI, including dispute settlement (Article 13). The RDB publishes investment-related regulations and procedures at: .
According to a WTO policy review report dated January 2019, Rwanda is not a party to any countertrade and offsetting arrangements or agreements limiting exports to Rwanda.
A new property tax law was passed in August 2018. The new law removes the provision that taxpayers must have freehold land titles to pay property taxes. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) will receive a two-year tax trading license exemption upon establishment.
The most recent laws (passed between 2020-21) on FDI are below:
- Amended law on Investment Promotion and Facilitation:
- Amended Company Act:
- Law on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters:
- Law on Anti-Money Laundering and Terrorism Finance:
- Law on Partnerships:
- Law on Transfer Pricing:
Competition and Antitrust Laws
The GOR created the Competition and Consumer Protection Unit at the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MINICOM) in 2010 to address competition and consumer protection issues. The government is setting up the Rwanda Inspectorate, Competition and Consumer Protection Authority (RICA), a new independent body with the mandate to promote fair competition among producers. The body will reportedly aim to ensure consumer protection and enforcement of standards. To read more on competition laws in Rwanda, please visit:
Market forces determine most prices in Rwanda, but in some cases, the GOR intervenes to fix prices for items considered sensitive. RURA, in consultation with relevant ministries, sets prices for petroleum products, water, electricity, and public transport. MINICOM and the Ministry of Agriculture have fixed farm gate prices (or the market value of a cultivated product minus the selling costs) for agricultural products like coffee, maize, and Irish potatoes from time to time. On international tenders, a 10 percent price preference is available for local bidders, including those from regional economic integration bodies in which Rwanda is a member.
Some U.S. companies have expressed frustration that while authorities require them to operate as a formal enterprise that meets all Rwandan regulatory requirements, some local competitors are allowed to operate informally without complying fully with all regulatory requirements. Other investors have claimed SOEs, ruling party-aligned, and politically connected business competitors receive preferential treatment in securing public incentives and contracts.
Expropriation and Compensation
The Investment Code forbids the expropriation of investors’ property in the public interest unless the investor is fairly compensated. An expropriation law came into force in 2015, which included more explicit protections for property owners.
A 2017 study by Rwanda Civil Society Platform argues that the government conducts expropriations on short notice and does not provide sufficient time or support to help landowners fairly negotiate compensation. The report includes a survey that found only 27 percent of respondents received information about planned expropriation well in advance of action. While mechanisms exist to challenge the government’s offer, the report notes that landowners are required to pay all expenses for the second valuation, a prohibitive cost for rural farmers or the urban poor. Media have reported that wealthier landowners have the ability to challenge valuations and have received higher amounts. Political exiles and other embattled opposition figures have been involved in taxation lawsuits that resulted in their “abandoned properties” being sold at auction, allegedly at below market values.
ICSID Convention and New York Convention
The Investment Code states that “a dispute that arises between an investor and a State organ in connection with a registered investment should be amicably settled. If an amicable settlement cannot be reached, parties must refer the dispute to an agreed arbitration institution or to any other dispute settlement procedure provided for under an agreement between both parties. If no dispute settlement procedure is provided under a written agreement, both parties must refer the dispute to the competent court.”
Rwanda is signatory to the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) and the African Trade Insurance Agency (ATI). ICSID seeks to remove impediments to private investment posed by non-commercial risks, while ATI covers risk against restrictions on import and export activities, inconvertibility, expropriation, war, and civil disturbances.
Rwanda ratified the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in 2008.
Investor-State Dispute Settlement
Rwanda is a member of the East African Court of Justice for the settlement of disputes arising from or pertaining to the EAC. Rwanda has also acceded to the 1958 New York Arbitration Convention and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency convention. Under the U.S.-Rwanda BIT, U.S. investors have the right to bring investment disputes before neutral, international arbitration panels. Disputes between U.S. investors and the GOR in recent years have been resolved through international arbitration, court judgments, or out of court settlements. Judgments by foreign courts and contract clauses that abide by foreign law are accepted and enforced by local courts, though these lack capacity and experience to adjudicate cases governed by non-Rwandan law. There have been a number of private investment disputes in Rwanda, though the government has yet to stand as complainant, respondent, or third party in a WTO dispute settlement. Rwanda has been a party to two cases at ICSID since Rwanda became a member in 1963; one of these cases is an ongoing case brought by an American investor against Rwanda. SOEs are also subject to domestic and international disputes. SOEs and ruling party-owned companies party to suits have both won and lost judgments in the past.
International Commercial Arbitration and Foreign Courts
In 2012, the GOR launched the Kigali International Arbitration Center (KIAC). KIAC case handling rules are modeled on the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) arbitration rules. According to the KIAC’s 2020 activity report, KIAC had reviewed 160 cases by June 2020. Close to 40 percent of those cases were international with parties from more than 20 nationalities (Burundi, China, Ethiopia, Egypt, France, India, Italy, Kenya, Korea, Pakistan, South Africa, South Korea, Singapore, Rwanda, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, Uganda, the United States, and Zambia). Arbitrators appointed were from Rwanda, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Canada, the United States, and Singapore. Of the 89 KIAC-approved international arbitrators, only four are of Rwandan nationality, suggesting that KIAC draws from a large pool of professionals in alternative dispute resolutions from all over the world. All 38 domestic arbitrators are Rwandan nationals.
Some businesses report being pressured to use the Rwanda-based KIAC for the seat of arbitration in contracts signed with the GOR. Some of these companies have indicated that they would prefer arbitration take place in a third country, noting that KIAC has a short track record and is domiciled in Rwanda. Moreover, some companies have reported difficulty in securing international financing due to the KIAC provision in their contracts.
Rwanda ranks 38 out of 190 economies for resolving insolvency in the World Bank’s 2020 Doing Business Report and is number two in Africa. It takes an average of two and a half years to conclude bankruptcy proceedings in Rwanda. Per the World Bank 2020 Doing Business Report, the recovery rate for creditors on insolvent firms was reported at 19.3 cents on the dollar, with judgments typically made in local currency.
In April 2018, the GOR instituted a new Insolvency and Bankruptcy Law. One major change is the introduction of an article on “pooling of assets” allowing creditors to pursue parent companies and other members of the group, in case a subsidiary is in liquidation. The new law can be accessed here: https://org.rdb.rw/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/Insolvency-Law-OGNoSpecialbisdu29April2018.pdf
4. Industrial Policies
The Investment Code offers a package of benefits and incentives for registered investors in priority and strategic growth sectors. Under certain conditions, these can include:
Preferential corporate income tax rate of zero percent for 1) an international company that has its headquarters or regional office in Rwanda; or 2) an entity registered in Rwanda by a philanthropic investor.
Preferential corporate income tax rate of three percent for 1) an investor licensed to operate as a pure holding company; 2) a special purpose vehicle registered for investment purposes; 3) a Collective Investment Scheme; 4) a global trading or paper trading company (on foreign sourced trading income); or 5) an intellectual property company (on foreign sourced royalties).
Preferential tax incentives for a philanthropic investors: An entity established by a philanthropic investor is granted the following incentives: 1) grants and funds transferred to the entity for the purposes of financing its social impact activities are not deemed revenues and are therefore exempted from value added tax and corporate income tax charges; 2) goods and services procured locally by the entity are value added tax zero- rated; 3) an exemption of employment income tax is applied to foreign nationals recruited by the entity who ordinarily reside in Rwanda, provided that foreign employees do not exceed thirty percent of the professional staff of the entity. Foreign employees of the entity are entitled to a refund of social security contributions paid, upon their permanent departure from Rwanda.
Preferential corporate income tax rate of fifteen percent for registered investors undertaking one of the following operations: 1) energy generation, transmission and distribution from peat, solar, geothermal, hydro, biomass, methane and wind (excluding investors having engineering procurement contracts executed on behalf of the Government of Rwanda); 2) mass transportation of passengers and goods; 3) manufacturing; 4) information and communication technology; 5) innovation research and development facilities; 6) fund management entities, collective investment schemes, wealth management services, financial advisory entities, family office services, fund administrators, financial technology entities, captive insurance schemes, private banks, mortgage finance institution, finance lease entities, asset backed securities, reinsurance companies, trust and corporate service providers; 7) construction of affordable houses; 8) electric mobility; 9) adventure tourism and agriculture tourism.
Preferential corporate income tax rate for export investments: 1) twenty-five percent corporate income tax is applied to a registered investor with at least thirty percent of total turnover of goods and services coming from exports; 2) fifteen percent corporate income tax is applied to a registered investor with at least fifty percent of total turnover coming from export of goods and services.
- Exemption from custom taxes and duties for products used in export processing zones: In addition to incentives for export investments, registered investors in products used in export processing zones are exempted from customs taxes and duties.
- Incentives for internationalization: Small, medium or emerging involved in exports are entitled to a one hundred and fifty percent tax deduction of all qualifying expenditures relating to internationalization.
Corporate income tax holiday of up to seven years: Investors (except those in private equity and venture capital) investing an equivalent of at least fifty million U.S. dollars and contributing at least thirty percent of the invested amount in form of equity in specific priority sectors are granted a maximum of a seven-year corporate income tax holiday.
Corporate income tax holiday of up to five years for 1) specialized innovation and industrial park developers from the first year that the project makes a positive net income; and 2) licensed microfinance institutions from the date of their licensing.
- Preferential withholding tax of zero percent is applicable to dividends, interest and royalties paid by investors benefiting from preferential corporate income tax of fifteen percent and three percent.
- Preferential withholding tax of five percent is applicable to dividends and interest income paid to investors in companies listed on the Rwanda Stock Exchange.
- Preferential withholding tax of ten percent is applicable to specialized innovation and industrial park developers on interest on foreign loans, dividends, royalties and service fees.
More information on additional incentives and benefits for the mining sector, the film industry, industrial and innovation parks, angel investors, start-ups, immigration, accelerated depreciation and capital gain tax exemption, can be found in the annex of the Investment Code here:
In addition, the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MINECOFIN), upon recommendation by RDB’s Private Investment Committee, can issue a Ministerial Order offering more incentives for investments deemed of strategic importance.
In the past, poorly coordinated efforts between the RDB, RRA, MINICOM, and the Directorate of Immigration and Emigration led to inconsistent application of incentives, according to investors. Investors reported that tax incentives included in deals signed by the RDB were not honored by the RRA in a timely manner or sometimes were not honored at all. Additionally, investors continue to face challenges receiving payment for services rendered for GOR projects, VAT refund delays, and/or expatriation of profits. In 2016, the GOR instituted a law governing public-private partnership (PPPs) as a step toward courting investments in key development projects. The law provides a legal framework concerning establishment, implementation, and management of PPPs. Detailed guidelines for the law can be accessed here:
Foreign Trade Zones/Free Ports/Trade Facilitation
Rwanda has established the Kigali Special Economic Zone (KSEZ), which was set up through the merger of the former Kigali Free Trade Zone and the Kigali Industrial Park projects. SEZs in Rwanda are regulated by the SEZ Authority of Rwanda (SEZAR), based at the RDB. Land in KSEZ is acquired through the Prime Economic Zone Secretariat, a private developer, under the regulations of SEZAR. The price per square meter is $62, and the minimum size that can be acquired is one hectare (2.5 acres). Bonded warehouse facilities are now available both in and outside of Kigali for use by businesses importing duty-free materials. The GOR has established a number of benefits for investors operating in the SEZs, including tax and land ownership advantages. A company basing itself in the SEZ can also opt to be a part of the Economic Processing Zone. A number of criteria must be satisfied in order to qualify. These include requirements to maintain extensive records on equipment, materials and goods, suitable offices, and security provisions.
Holding an Export Processing Zone (EPZ) license allows a company to operate in the KSEZ and will exempt a company from VAT, import duties, and corporate tax. The company is then obliged to export a minimum of 80 percent of production. Even after considering savings due to these government incentives, a few investors reported that land in the SEZs was significantly more expensive than land outside the zones. The GOR has stated that there are no fiscal, immigration, or customs incentives beyond those provided in the Investment Code, though media has occasionally speculated that certain investors received additional incentives. The negative list of goods prohibited under the EAC Customs Management Act applies in SEZs. In November 2018, the GOR approved the Bugesera Special Economic Zone (BSEZ), located 45 minutes from Kigali. A new airport is under construction near the BSEZ as well. Procedural information and cost involved in operating in SEZs can be accessed here: . The SEZ policy was revised in 2018. Under the new policy, foreigners and locals may only lease land (formerly, foreign investors were able to purchase land outright in SEZs). To read more on the new policy, please see:
Rwanda created the Export Growth Facility (EGF) in 2015 with an initial capital of RWF 500 million ($500,000) administered by the Development Bank of Rwanda (BRD). German KfW Development Bank injected $10 million in support of the fund. The pilot program targets SMEs with export sales below $1 million. Priority sectors include horticulture, agro-processing, and manufacturing. The facility has three windows: an investment catalyst fund, a matching grant fund for market entry costs, and an export guarantee facility. Investment catalyst funds support private sector investments in export-orientated production through a 6.5 percent subsidy on market interest rates (normally between 16-20 percent). The matching grant fund provides grants (50 percent of the need) for expenditure on specific market entry costs (export strategy elaboration, export promotion, compliance with standards, etc.). The export guarantee fund provides short-term guarantees to commercial banks financing exporters’ pre- and post-shipment operations. The export guarantee component is not yet operational. The facility supports both locally- and foreign-owned companies in Rwanda; at least one American company has already received a loan. Rwanda created the Business Development Fund (BDF) in 2011 to provide support to SMEs in credit guarantees, matching grants, asset leasing, and advisory services. BDF works with banks to provide guarantees between 50-75 percent of required collaterals. The maximum guarantee is RWF 500 million ($500,000) for agriculture projects and RWF 300 million ($300,000) for other sectors, for a maturity period of up to 10 years.
The GOR also manages the Rwanda Green Fund (FONERWA) to spur investment in green innovation. UK Aid and other donors have invested in the fund. FONERWA claims projects it supports have created more than 137,000 green jobs.
The GOR’s cabinet resolution of April 30, 2020, established the Economic Recovery Fund (ERF) to support businesses severely affected by COVID-19, and the National Bank of Rwanda (BNR) was designated to manage the initial $100 million in funds. This $100 million was structured in four financing windows: 1) the hotel financing window, 2) the working capital window for large corporations, 3) working capital window for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and 4) working capital for micro-businesses. Lending under the first three windows is through banks, while the fourth one is through Microfinance Institutions (MFIs). According to the January 2021 International Monetary Fund (IMF) report, “the ERF comprises a debt restructuring window for hotels ($50 million), working capital financing windows for large corporates, SMEs, and microbusinesses ($47 million), and a guarantee scheme for up to 75 percent of ERF loans to SMEs ($3 million). ERF funds are lent to banks, MFIs, and Savings and Credit Cooperative Organizations (SACCOs), at zero or low interest, who in turn use it to provide loan restructuring for hotels or working-capital financing, at reduced rates, to firms deemed viable.” On March 31, 2021 the GOR announced the ERF would receive an additional $350 million to support the same activities as the original $100 million. The monies were not made immediately available, and sources of the funding have not been disclosed.
Performance and Data Localization Requirements
There is no legal obligation for nationals to own shares in foreign investments and no requirement that shares of foreign equity be reduced over time. However, the government strongly encourages local participation in foreign investments. There is no requirement for private companies to store their proprietary data in Rwanda. There is also no requirement for foreign IT providers to turn over source code and/or provide access to encryption technology. IT companies dealing with government data cannot store it outside Rwanda or transfer it without GOR approval. Rwandans’ private data must be stored in Rwanda. There is no formal requirement that a certain number of senior officials or board members be citizens of Rwanda unless as a pre-condition to benefits from increased investment incentives. For example, the Investment Code specifies that for an international company that moves its headquarters or regional office to Rwanda to be able to recruit any number of required managerial, professional, and technical foreign employees, at least 30 percent of professional staff must be Rwandan. A preferential corporate income tax rate of three percent is granted to collective investment schemes, special purpose vehicles and pure holding companies if at least 30 percent of their professional staff are Rwandans and at least two professional or qualified Rwandan residents are members of their board of directors.
While the government does not impose conditions on the transfer of technology, it does encourage foreign investors, without legal obligation, to transfer technology and expertise to local staff to help develop Rwanda’s human capital. There is no legal requirement that investors must purchase from local sources or export a certain percentage of their output, though the government offers tax incentives for the latter. Unless stipulated in a contract or memorandum of understanding characterizing the purchase of privatized enterprises, performance requirements are not imposed as a condition for establishing, maintaining, or expanding other investments. Such requirements are imposed chiefly as a condition to tax and investment incentives. The GOR is not involved in assessing the type and source of raw materials for performance, but the RSB determines quality standards for some product categories.
5. Protection of Property Rights
The law protects and facilitates acquisition and disposition of all property rights. Investors involved in commercial agriculture have leasehold titles and can secure property titles, if necessary. The Investment Code states that investors shall have the right to own private property, whether individually or collectively. According to the 2013 land law, foreign investors can acquire real estate, though there is a general limit on land ownership. Freehold is granted only to Rwandan citizens for at least five hectares (12.5 acres) and to foreigners for 1) properties located in designated Special Economic Zones, 2) on reciprocal basis or 3) on land co-owned with Rwandan citizens (if Rwandan citizens own at least 51 percent). However, according to the October 2020 draft law, freehold tenure will continue for Rwandan citizens on lands of at least two hectares (five acres) and, under a Presidential Order, freehold tenure for foreigners will be approved for exceptional circumstances (strategic national interest investments). The GOR will increase long-term leases (emphyteutic lease) in residential and commercial areas for both citizens and foreigners acquiring land through private means to 99 years compared to the current 20 and 30 years, respectively. While local investors can acquire land through leasehold agreements that extend to 99 years, the GOR has limited the lease period for foreigners to 49 years, in some cases. Such leases are theoretically renewable, but the law is new enough that foreigners generally have not yet attempted to renew a lease. Mortgages are a nascent but growing financial product in Rwanda, increasing from 770 properties in 2008 to 13,394 in 2017, according to the RDB. In 2020, RDB reported registering 16,624 mortgages in 2019.
Intellectual Property Rights
The Investment Code guarantees protection of investors’ intellectual property (IP) rights, and legitimate rights related to technology transfer. The GOR approved IP legislation covering patents, trademarks, and copyrights in 2009. A registration service agency, which is part of the RDB, was established in 2008 and has improved IP right protection by making the registering of all commercial entities and facilitating businesses identification and branding possible.
The RDB and the Rwanda Standards Board (RSB) are the main regulatory bodies for Rwanda’s intellectual property rights law. The RDB registers intellectual property rights, providing a certificate and ownership title. Every registered IP title is published in the Official Gazette. The fees payable for substance examination and registration of IP apply equally for domestic and foreign applicants. From 2016, any power of attorney granted by a non-resident to a Rwandan-based industrial property agent must be notarized (previously, a signature would have been sufficient).
Registration of patents and trademarks is on a first time, first right basis so companies should consider applying for trademark and patent protection in a timely manner. It is the responsibility of the copyright holders to register, protect, and enforce their rights where relevant, including by retaining their own counsel and advisors. Through the RSB and the RRA, Rwanda has worked to increase protection of IP rights, but many goods that violate patents, especially pharmaceutical products, make it to market nonetheless. As many products available in Rwanda are re-exports from other EAC countries, it may be difficult to prevent counterfeit goods without regional cooperation. Also, investors reported difficulties in registering patents and having rules against infringement of their property rights enforced in a timely manner. The GOR is proposing a new IP law that will organize a patent and trade office for Rwanda.
As a COMESA member, Rwanda is automatically a member of the African Regional Intellectual Property Organization. Rwanda is also a member of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and is working toward harmonizing its legislation with WTO trade-related aspects of IP. Rwanda has yet to ratify WIPO internet treaties, though the government has taken steps to implement and enforce the WTO TRIPS agreements. Rwanda is not listed in USTR’s 2019 Special 301 report or the 2019 Notorious Markets List. In July 2020, Rwanda acceded to the Marrakesh Treaty to facilitate access to published works for persons who are blind, visually impaired, or otherwise print disabled. For additional information about treaty obligations and points of contact at local IP offices, please see WIPO’s country profiles at .
Rwanda conducts anti-counterfeit goods campaigns on a regular basis, but statistics on IP enforcement are not publicly available. A few companies have expressed concern over inappropriate use of their IP. While the government has offered rhetorical support, enforcement has been mixed. In some cases, infringement has stopped, but in other cases, companies have been frustrated with the slow pace of receiving judgment or in receiving compensation after successful legal cases.
6. Financial Sector
Capital Markets and Portfolio Investment
In February 2021, the GOR introduced new incentives to support the Rwanda Stock Exchange and the Capital Market Authority through the Investment Code. A preferential withholding tax of five percent is applicable to dividends and interest income paid to investors in companies listed on the Rwanda Stock Exchange. A preferential corporate income tax rate of three percent applies to collective investment schemes. A preferential corporate income tax rate of fifteen percent applies to fund management entities, wealth management services, financial advisory entities, financial technology entities, captive insurance schemes, mortgage finance institutions, fund administrators, finance lease entities, and asset backed securities.
In December 2017, the GOR established Rwanda Finance Limited (RFL), a state-owned enterprise charged with creating the Kigali International Financial Centre (KIFC). The goal is to create a conducive ecosystem to entice pan-African and international financial service providers and investment funds to Rwanda. KIFC is scheduled to be launched on the sidelines of Commonwealth Heads Of Governments Meeting (CHOGM) taking place in Kigali in June 2021. RFL has successfully pushed the GOR to change many Rwandan investment, banking, and commercial laws to in order to align with OECD/EU and AML/CFT requirements. In November 2019, BNR introduced a multiple bond issuance program. In the 2019-2020 financial year, seven bonds were reopened, eight new bonds were issued, and three multiple issuances were performed. Oversubscription reached 138% on average. BNR implemented reforms in recent years that are helping to create a secondary market for Rwandan treasury bonds.
In November 2019, BNR introduced a multiple bond issuance program. In the 2019-2020 financial year, seven bonds were reopened, eight new bonds were issued, and three multiple issuances were performed. Oversubscription reached 138% on average. BNR implemented reforms in recent years that are helping to create a secondary market for Rwandan treasury bonds.
In January 2021, the IMF completed its third review of Rwanda’s economic performance under a Policy Coordination Instrument, which can be found here: https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/CR/Issues/2021/01/04/Rwanda-Third-Review-Under-the-Policy-Coordination-Instrument-Press-Release-Staff-Report-and-49984
Money and Banking System
Many U.S. investors express concern that local access to affordable credit is a serious challenge in Rwanda. Interest rates are high for the region, banks offer predominantly short-term loans, collateral requirements can be higher than 100 percent of the value of the loan, and Rwandan commercial banks rarely issue significant loan values. The prime interest rate is 16-18 percent. Large international transfers are subject to authorization. Investors who seek to borrow more than $1 million must often engage in multi-party loan transactions, usually by leveraging support from larger regional banks. Credit terms generally reflect market rates, and foreign investors can negotiate credit facilities from local lending institutions if they have collateral and “bankable” projects. In some cases, preferred financing options may be available through specialized funds including the Export Growth Fund, BRD, or FONERWA.
The banking sector holds more than 67 percent of total financial sector assets in Rwanda. In total, Rwanda’s banks have assets of around $3.8 billion, which increased 18.5 percent between June 2018 and June 2020, according to BNR. Rwanda’s financial sector remains highly concentrated. The share of the three largest banks’ assets increased from 46.5 percent in December 2018 to 48.4 percent in December 2019. The largest, the partially state-owned Bank of Kigali (BoK), holds more than 30 percent of all assets. The total number of bank and micro-finance institution (MFI) accounts increased from 7.1 million to 7.7 million between 2018-2019.
Local banks often generate significant revenue from holding government debt and from charging a variety of fees to banking customers. The capital adequacy ratio decreased to 23.7 percent in June 2020 from 24.1 percent over the year but was still well above the prudential minimum of 15 percent, suggesting the Rwandan banking sector continues to be generally risk averse. Non-performing loans increased from 4.9 in December 2019 to 5.5 percent in June 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic’s disruption of economic activities.
The IMF gives BNR high marks for its effective monetary policy. BNR introduced a new monetary policy framework in 2019, which shifted toward an inflation-targeting monetary framework in place of a quantity-of-money framework. In April 2020, the BNR arranged a 50 billion RWF ($53.4 Million) liquidity fund for local banks facing challenges from COVID-19. The BNR allowed banks to restructure loans affected by the pandemic by authorizing an average of four months in loan holidays. Additionally, in March 2020, the BNR took a decision to suspend distribution of dividends from profits generated in 2019.
Foreign banks are permitted to establish operations in Rwanda, with several Kenyan-based banks in the country. Atlas Mara Limited acquired a majority equity stake in Banque Populaire du Rwanda (BPR) in 2016. BPR/Atlas Mara has the largest number of branch locations and is Rwanda’s second largest bank after BoK. Atlas Mara was, in turn, acquired by Kenyan based KCB bank. Moroccan-based Bank of Africa, a minority bank in Rwanda, actively discourages American account holders due to requirements imposed by the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FACTA), which charges foreign banks for expenses incurred while auditing an American.
In November 2020, the GOR signed an MOU with the African Export-Import Bank (Afreximbank) to host the permanent headquarters of Afrexim Fund for Export Development in Africa (FEDA) in Kigali. FEDA will operate as an equity investment fund that provides seed capital to companies in Africa, emphasizing projects that promote intra-African trade, trade-related infrastructure, and value-added exports. According to RDB, the fund will have an initial commitment of $350 million from Afreximbank and is expected to grow to over $1 billion in the future.
Rwandans primarily rely on cash or mobile money to conduct transactions, though use of debit and credit cards is expanding. By December 2019, the number of debit cards in the country grew eight percent year over year to 945,000, and the number of mobile banking customers grew 22 percent to 1,266,000. Credit cards are becoming more common in major cities, especially at locations frequented by foreigners, but are not used in rural areas. In the financial year 2019-20, the number of retail point of sale (POS) using cards increased by 29 percent compared to 2018-19. ATM terminals decreased by 15 percent due to the adoption of other channels such as agency, internet, and mobile banking. Use of mobile money has grown by more than 500 percent since March 2020 due to changes brought about by COVID-19 and business closures.
Foreign Exchange and Remittances
In 1995, the government abandoned a dollar peg and established a floating exchange rate regime under which all lending and deposit interest rates were liberalized. On a daily basis, the BNR publishes an official exchange rate, which is typically within a two percent range of rates seen in the local market. Some investors report occasional difficulty in obtaining foreign exchange. Rwanda generally runs a large trade deficit, estimated at more than ten percent of GDP in 2019. In the 2019-2020 fiscal year, BNR reported that Rwanda’s trade deficit widened by 23.7 percent. Transacting locally in foreign currency is prohibited in Rwanda. Regulations set a ceiling on the amount of foreign currency that can leave the country per day. In addition, regulations specify limits for sending money outside the country; the BNR must approve any transaction that exceed these limits.
Most local loans are in local currency. In December 2018, BNR issued a new directive on lending in foreign currency which requires the borrower to have a turnover of at least RWF 50 million ($50,000) or equivalent in foreign currency and have a known income stream in foreign currency not below 150 percent of the total installment repayments. Moreover, the repayments must be in foreign currency. The collateral pledged by non-resident borrowers must be valued at 150 percent of the value of the loan. In addition, BNR requires banks to report regularly on loans granted in foreign currency.
Investors can remit payments from Rwanda only through authorized commercial banks. There is no limit on the inflow of funds, although local banks are required to notify BNR of all transfers over $10,000 to mitigate the risk of potential money laundering. Additionally, there are some restrictions on the outflow of export earnings. Companies generally must repatriate export earnings within three months after the goods cross the border. Tea exporters must deposit sales proceeds shortly after auction in Mombasa, Kenya. Repatriated export earnings deposited in commercial banks must match the exact declaration the exporter used crossing the border.
Rwandans working overseas can make remittances to their home country without impediment. It usually takes up to three days to transfer money using SWIFT financial services. The concentrated nature of the Rwandan banking sector limits choice, and some U.S. investors have expressed frustration with the high fees charged for exchanging Rwandan francs to dollars.
Sovereign Wealth Funds
In 2012, the Rwandan government launched the Agaciro Development Fund (ADF), a sovereign wealth fund that includes investments from Rwandan citizens and the international diaspora. By September 30, 2019, the fund was worth 194.3 billion RWF in assets ($204 million). The ADF operates under the custodianship of the BNR and reports quarterly and annually to MINECOFIN. ADF is a member of the International Forum of Sovereign Wealth Funds and is committed to the Santiago Principles. ADF only operates in Rwanda. In addition to returns on investments, voluntary contributions from citizens and the private sector, and other donations, ADF receives RWF 5 billion ($5 million) every year from tax revenues and five percent of proceeds from every public asset that the GOR has privatized. The fund also receives five percent of royalties from minerals and other natural resources each year. The government has transferred a number of its shares in private enterprises to the management of ADF including those in the BoK, Broadband Systems Corporation (BSC), Gasabo 3D Ltd, Africa Olleh Services (AoS), Korea Telecom Rwanda Networks (KTRN), and the One and Only Nyungwe Lodge. ADF invests mainly in Rwanda. While the fund can invest in foreign non-fixed income investments, such as publicly listed equity, private equity, and joint ventures, the AGDF Corporate Trust Ltd (the fund’s investment arm) held no financial assets and liabilities in foreign currency, according to the 2018 annual report (the most recent report available).
7. State-Owned Enterprises
Rwandan law allows private enterprises to compete with public enterprises under the same terms and conditions with respect to access to markets, credit, and other business operations. Since 2006, the GOR has made efforts to privatize SOEs; reduce the government’s non-controlling shares in private enterprises; and attract FDI, especially in the ICT, tourism, banking, and agriculture sectors, but progress has been slow. Current SOEs include water and electricity utilities, as well as companies in construction, ICT, aviation, mining, insurance, agriculture, finance, and other sectors. Some investors complain about competition from state-owned and ruling party-aligned businesses. SOEs and utilities appear in the national budget, but the financial performance of most SOEs is only detailed in an annex that is not publicly available. The most recent state finances audit report of the OAG also covers SOEs and has sections criticizing the management of some of the organizations. SOEs are governed by boards with most members having other government positions.
State-owned non-financial corporations include Ngali Holdings, Horizon Group Ltd, Rwanda Energy Group, Water and Sanitation Corporation, RwandAir, National Post Office, Rwanda Printery Company Ltd, King Faisal Hospital, Muhabura Multichoice Ltd, Prime Holdings, Rwanda Grain and Cereals Corporation, Kinazi Cassava Plant, and the Rwanda Inter-Link Transport Company. State-owned financial corporations include the National Bank of Rwanda, Development Bank of Rwanda, Special Guarantee Fund, Rwanda National Investment Trust Ltd, Agaciro Development Fund, BDF and the Rwanda Social Security Board. The GOR has interests in the BoK, Ultimate Concepts Limited (UCL), New Horizon Limited, Rwanda Convention Bureau, BSC, CIMERWA, Gasabo 3D Ltd, AoS, Korea Telecom Rwanda Network, Dubai World, Nyungwe Lodge, and Akagera Management Company, among others.
Rwanda continues to carry out a privatization program that has attracted foreign investors in strategic areas ranging from telecommunications and banking to tea production and tourism. As of 2017 (the latest data available), 56 companies have been fully privatized, seven were liquidated, and 20 more were in the process of privatization. RDB’s Strategic Investment Department is responsible for implementing and monitoring the privatization program. Some observers have questioned the transparency of certain transactions, as a number of transactions were undertaken not through public offerings but through mutual agreements directly between the government and the private investor, some of whom have personal relationships with senior government officials.
8. Responsible Business Conduct
There is a growing awareness of corporate social responsibility (CSR) within Rwanda, and several foreign-owned companies operating locally implement CSR programs. Rwanda implements the OECD’s Guidance for Responsible Supply Chains of Minerals from Conflict-Affected and High-Risk Areas. Rwanda also implements the International Tin Supply Chain Initiative tracing scheme. In 2016, the Better Sourcing Program (currently RCS Global Group) began an alternative mineral tracing scheme in Rwanda. Rwanda also has guidelines on corporate governance by publicly listed companies. In recognition of the firm’s strong commitment to CSR, the U.S. Department of State awarded Sorwathe, a U.S.-owned tea producer in Kinihira, Rwanda, the Secretary of State’s 2012 Award for Corporate Excellence (ACE) for Small and Medium Enterprises. In 2015, the U.S. firm Gigawatt Global was also a finalist for the Secretary of State’s ACE award in the environmental sustainability category. In January 2021, Illinois-based Abbot laboratories was given the ACE award in recognition of its work to expand preventative health care in rural areas of Rwanda. Rwanda is not a member of the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative.
Department of State
- Country Reports on Human Rights Practices;
- Trafficking in Persons Report;
- Guidance on Implementing the “UN Guiding Principles” for Transactions Linked to Foreign Government End-Users for Products or Services with Surveillance Capabilities and;
- North Korea Sanctions & Enforcement Actions Advisory
Department of Labor
Rwanda is ranked among the least corrupt countries in Africa, with Transparency International’s 2020 Corruption Perception Index putting the country among Africa’s four least corrupt nations and 49th in the world. The GOR maintains a high-profile anti-corruption effort, and senior leaders articulate a consistent message emphasizing that combating corruption is a key national goal. The government investigates corruption allegations and generally punishes those found guilty. High-ranking officials accused of corruption often resign during the investigation period, and the GOR has prosecuted many of them. Rwanda has ratified the UN Anticorruption Convention, is a signatory to the OECD Convention on Combating Bribery and is a signatory to the African Union Anticorruption Convention. U.S. firms have identified the perceived lack of government corruption in Rwanda as a key incentive for investing in the country. There are no local industry or non-profit groups offering services for vetting potential local investment partners, but the Ministry of Justice keeps judgments online, maintaining a source of information on companies and individuals in Rwanda at www.judiciary.gov.rw/home/ . The Rwanda National Public Prosecution Authority issues criminal records on demand to applicants at www.nppa.gov.rw .
Resources to Report Corruption
Contact at government agency or agencies are responsible for combating corruption:
Mr. Felicien Mwumvaneza, Commissioner for Quality Assurance Department (Anti-Corruption Unit) Rwanda Revenue Authority
Avenue du Lac Muhazi, P.O. Box 3987, Kigali, Rwanda
Telephone: +250 252595504 or +250 788309563
firstname.lastname@example.org / email@example.com
Mr. Obadiah Biraro, Auditor General, Office of the Auditor General
Avenue du Lac Muhazi, P.O. Box 1020, Kigali, Rwanda
Telephone: +250 78818980 , firstname.lastname@example.org
Contact at “watchdog” organization
10. Political and Security Environment
Rwanda is a stable country with relatively little violence. According to a 2017 report by the World Economic Forum, Rwanda is the ninth safest country in the world. Gallup’s Global Law and Order Index report of 2018 ranked Rwanda as the second safest place in Africa. Investors have cited the stable political and security environment as an important driver of investments. A strong police and military provide a security umbrella that minimizes potential criminal activity.
The U.S. Department of State recommends that U.S. citizens exercise caution when traveling near the Rwanda-Democratic Republic of Congo border, given the possibility of fighting and cross-border attacks involving armed rebel and militia groups. Relations between Burundi and Rwanda are tense, and there is a risk of cross-border incursions and armed clashes. Since 2018, there have been a few incidents of sporadic fighting in districts bordering Burundi and in Nyungwe National Park.
Grenade attacks aimed at the local populace occurred repeatedly between 2008 and 2014 in Rwanda. There have been several reported cross-border attacks in Western Rwanda on Rwandan police and military posts since 2016. Despite occasional violence along Rwanda’s borders with the DRC and Burundi, there have been no incidents involving politically motivated damage to investment projects or installations since the late 1990s. Relations with Uganda are also tense, but leaders continue to emphasize they are seeking a political solution. Rwanda has not allowed commercial traffic originating from Uganda to cross the Rwandan-Ugandan border since February 2019. Transit from/to Kenya through Uganda is allowed. Because of political tensions between Rwanda and Uganda, most of the commercial traffic to Rwanda goes through the Tanzanian border. In May 2020, the Rwanda-Tanzania border crossings were negatively impacted due to an influx of Tanzanian truck drivers infected with COVID-19.
11. Labor Policies and Practices
General labor is available, but Rwanda suffers from a shortage of skilled labor, including accountants, lawyers, engineers, tradespeople, and technicians. Higher institutes of technology, private universities, and vocational institutes are improving and producing more highly trained graduates each year. The Rwanda Workforce Development Authority sponsors programs to support both short and long-term professional trainings targeting key industries in Rwanda. Carnegie Mellon University opened a campus in Kigali in 2012–its first in sub-Saharan Africa–and currently offers a Master of Science in Electrical and Computer Engineering and Master of Science in Information Technology. In 2013, Kepler established a nonprofit university program for students to work toward a U.S.-accredited degree through online learning and in-person seminars through a relationship with Southern New Hampshire University. Oklahoma Christian University offers an online Master of Business Administration program with on-site support in Kigali. The African Institute of Mathematics, University of Global Health Equity, and African Leadership University campuses in Rwanda offer college level and advanced degrees in many fields. Investors are strongly encouraged to hire Rwandan nationals whenever possible. According to the Investment Code, a registered investor who invests an equivalent of at least $250,000 may recruit three foreign employees. However, a number of foreign investors reported difficulties importing qualified staff in accordance with the Investment Code due to Rwandan immigration rules and practices. In some cases, these problems occurred even though investors had signed agreements with the government regarding the number of foreign employees.
Investors are strongly encouraged to hire Rwandan nationals whenever possible. According to the Investment Code, a registered investor who invests an equivalent of at least $250,000 may recruit three foreign employees. However, a number of foreign investors reported difficulties importing qualified staff in accordance with the Investment Code due to Rwandan immigration rules and practices. In some cases, these problems occurred even though investors had signed agreements with the government regarding the number of foreign employees.
Rwanda has ratified all the International Labor Organization’s eight core conventions. Policies to protect workers in special labor conditions exist, but enforcement remains inconsistent. The government encourages, but does not require, on-the-job training and technology transfer to local employees. The law restricts voluntary collective bargaining by requiring prior authorization or approval by authorities and requiring binding arbitration in cases of non-conciliation. The law provides some workers the right to conduct strikes, but due to numerous restrictions, workers rarely engage in strikes. In 2020, the government published additional specifications for labor representatives, regulations against strikes, and guidelines providing labor inspectors greater authority to access to workplaces and assess fines. The GOR has been known to take swift action against foreign companies with poor labor practices upon initial complaints from workers. The legal framework for employment rights for disabled persons is not as strong as in the United States, but the government and some employers are making efforts to offer reasonable accommodations. In 2000, the government revised the national labor code to eliminate gender discrimination, restrictions on the mobility of labor, and wage controls. There is no unemployment insurance or other social safety net programs for workers laid off for economic reasons. Private firms are responsible for their local employees’ income tax payments and Rwanda Social Security Board pension contributions. For full-time workers, these payments amount to more than 30 percent of take-home pay, which can be a disadvantage if competing firms are in the informal economy and not compliant with these requirements. Labor laws are not waived to attract or retain investment. There are no labor law provisions specific to SEZs or industrial parks. Collective bargaining is a relatively new concept in Rwanda and is not common. Few professional associations fix minimum salaries for their members and some investors have expressed concern that labor law enforcement is uneven or opaque. The official minimum wage has not changed since 1974 and is 100 Rwandan francs ($0.10) per day.
The legal framework for employment rights for disabled persons is not as strong as in the United States, but the government and some employers are making efforts to offer reasonable accommodations. In 2000, the government revised the national labor code to eliminate gender discrimination, restrictions on the mobility of labor, and wage controls. There is no unemployment insurance or other social safety net programs for workers laid off for economic reasons. Private firms are responsible for their local employees’ income tax payments and Rwanda Social Security Board pension contributions. For full-time workers, these payments amount to more than 30 percent of take-home pay, which can be a disadvantage if competing firms are in the informal economy and not compliant with these requirements. Labor laws are not waived to attract or retain investment. There are no labor law provisions specific to SEZs or industrial parks. Collective bargaining is a relatively new concept in Rwanda and is not common. Few professional associations fix minimum salaries for their members and some investors have expressed concern that labor law enforcement is uneven or opaque. The official minimum wage has not changed since 1974 and is 100 Rwandan francs ($0.10) per day.
13. Foreign Direct Investment and Foreign Portfolio Investment Statistics
|Host Country Statistical Source*||USG or International Statistical Source
||USG or International Source of Data: BEA; IMF; Eurostat; UNCTAD, Other|
|Host Country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ($M USD)||2020||$ 9.96 billion||2019||$10.35 billion||http://www.statistics.gov.rw/
|Foreign Direct Investment||Host Country Statistical source*||USG or International Statistical Source
||USG or International Source of Data: BEA; IMF; Eurostat; UNCTAD, Other|
|U.S. FDI in Partner Country ($M USD, stock positions)||2018||$182.7 million||2018||n.a.|| BEA data available
|Host Country’s FDI in the United States ($M USD, stock positions)||2020||n.a.||2020||n.a.||BEA data available at
|Total Inbound Stock of FDI as % host GDP||2018||n.a||2020||n.a.|
|Direct Investment from/in Counterpart Economy Data|
|From Top Five Sources/Top Top Five Destinations (US Dollars, Millions)|
|Inward Direct Investment||Outward Direct Investment|
|Total Inward||Amount||100%||Total Outward||Amount||100%|
|“0” reflects amounts rounded to +/- $500,000.|
Inward Direct Investment according to IMF’s Coordinated Direct Investment Survey (http://data.imf.org/CDIS). Data on Rwandan outward FDI is not available.
Data on Rwanda equity security holdings by nationality is not available. According to a 2019 BNR report, portfolio investment remains the lowest component of foreign investment in Rwanda mainly due to the low level of financial market development. Portfolio investment stock amounted to $109.3 million in 2018, a 5 percent increase from 2017 levels. In 2018, Rwanda recorded foreign portfolio inflows of $5.9 million compared to $0.3 million in 2017.
|Portfolio Investment Assets|
|Top Five Partners (Millions, current US Dollars)|
|Total||Equity Securities||Total Debt Securities|
|All Countries||Amount||100%||All Countries||Amount||100%||All Countries||Amount||100%|