3. Legal Regime
Transparency of the Regulatory System
The GOR generally employs transparent policies and effective laws largely consistent with international norms. Rwanda is a member of the U.N. Conference on Trade and Development’s international network of transparent investment procedures. The Rwanda eRegulations system is an online database designed to bring transparency to investment procedures in Rwanda. Investors can find further information on administrative procedures at: https://businessprocedures.rdb.rw/.
Rwandan laws and regulations are published in the Government Gazette and online at . Government institutions generally have clear rules and procedures, but implementation can sometimes be uneven. Investors have cited breach of contracts and incentive promises, and the short time given to comply with changes in government policies, as hurdles to comply with regulations. For example, in 2019 the GOR submitted a draft law that was passed by Parliament the same year, banning single use plastic containers. Investors in the beverage and agro-processing sectors expressed concern that the law would have a serious impact on their operations, that alternative packaging was not available in some cases, and that the GOR did not consult effectively with stakeholders before submitting it. The law built on a ban on the manufacture and use of polyethylene bags introduced in 2008.
There is no formal mechanism to publish draft laws for public comment, although civil society sometimes has the opportunity to review them. There is no informal regulatory process managed by nongovernmental organizations. Regulations are usually developed rapidly in an effort to achieve policy goals and sometimes lack a basis in scientific or data-driven assessments. Scientific studies, or quantitative analysis (if any) conducted on the impact of regulations, are not generally made publicly available for comment. Regulators do not publicize comments they receive. Public finances and debt obligations are generally made available to the public before budget enactment. Finances for State Owned Enterprises (SOE) are not publicly available but may be requested by civil society organizations with a legitimate reason.
There is no government effort to restrict foreign participation in industry standards-setting consortia or organizations. Legal, regulatory, and accounting systems are generally transparent and consistent with international norms but are not always enforced. The Rwanda Utility Regulation Agency (RURA), the Office of the Auditor General (OAG), the Anticorruption Division of the RRA, the Rwanda Standards Board (RSB), the National Tender Board, and the Rwanda Environment Management Authority also enforce regulations. Consumer protection associations exist but are largely ineffective. The business community has been able to lobby the government and provide feedback on some draft government policies through the PSF, a business association with strong ties to the government. In some cases, the PSF has welcomed foreign investors to positively influence government policies. However, some investors have criticized the PSF for advocating to businesses about government policies rather than advocating business concerns to the government.
The American Chamber of Commerce launched in November 2019, and a European Chamber of Commerce launched in March 2020. Both are coordinating policy advocacy efforts to improve the business environment for American, European and other foreign firms in Rwanda. The Chinese also have a Chamber of Commerce registered in China and active in Rwanda.
International Regulatory Considerations
Rwanda is a member of the EAC Standards Technical Management Committee. Approved EAC measures are generally incorporated into the Rwandan regulatory system within six months and are published in the National Gazette like other domestic laws and regulations. Rwanda is also a member of the standards technical committees for the International Standardization Organization, the African Organization for Standardization, and the International Electrotechnical Commission. Rwanda is a member of the International Organization for Legal Metrology and the International Metrology Confederation. The Rwanda Standards Board represents Rwanda at the African Electrotechnical Commission. Rwanda has been a member of the WTO since 22 May 1996 and notifies the WTO Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade on draft technical regulations.
Legal System and Judicial Independence
The Rwandan legal system was originally based on the Belgian civil law system. However, since the renovation of the legal framework in 2002, the introduction of a new constitution in 2003, and the country’s entrance to the Commonwealth in 2009, there is now a mixture of civil law and common law (hybrid system). Rwanda’s courts address commercial disputes and facilitate enforcement of property and contract rights. Rwanda’s judicial system suffers from a lack of resources and capacity but continues to improve. Investors occasionally state that the government takes a casual approach to contract sanctity and sometimes fails to enforce court judgments in a timely fashion. The government generally respects judicial independence, though domestic and international observers have noted that outcomes in high-profile politically sensitive cases appeared predetermined.
In August 2018, the GOR created a Court of Appeal in an attempt to reduce backlogs and expedite the appeal process without going to the Supreme Court. The new Court of Appeal arbitrates cases handled by the High Court, Commercial High Court, and Military High Court. The Supreme Court continues to decide on cases of injustice filed from the Ombudsman Office and on constitutional interpretation. Based on Article 15 of Law 76/2013 of 11/09/2013, the Office of the Ombudsman has the authority to request that the Supreme Court reconsider and review judgments rendered at the last instance by ordinary, commercial, and military courts, if there is any persistence of injustice. More information on the review process can be found at . A Tax Court is yet to be established in Rwanda. In 2019, the RDB announced the government’s intent to create a commercial division at the Court of Appeal to fast-track resolution on commercial disputes.
Laws and Regulations on Foreign Direct Investment
National laws governing commercial establishments, investments, privatization and public investments, land, and environmental protection are the primary directives governing investments in Rwanda. Since 2011, the government reformed tax payment processes and enacted additional laws on insolvency and arbitration. The 2015 Investment Code establishes policies on FDI, including dispute resolution (Article 9). The RDB keeps investment-related regulations and procedures at: .
According to a WTO policy review report dated January 2019, Rwanda is not a party to any countertrade and offsetting arrangements, or agreements limiting exports to Rwanda.
A new property tax law was passed in August 2018. The new law removes the provision that taxpayers must have freehold land titles to pay property taxes. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) will receive a two-year tax trading license exemption upon establishment.
Competition and Anti-Trust Laws
Since 2010, a Competition and Consumer Protection Unit was created at the Ministry of Trade and Industry (MINICOM) to address competition and consumer protection issues. The government is setting up the Rwanda Inspectorate, Competition and Consumer Protection Authority (RICA), a new independent body with the mandate to promote fair competition among producers. The body will reportedly aim to ensure consumer protection and enforcement of standards. To read more on competition laws in Rwanda, please visit: http://www.minicom.gov.rw/index.php?id=136.
Market forces determine most prices in Rwanda, but, in some cases, the GOR intervenes to fix prices for items considered sensitive in Rwanda. RURA, in consultation with relevant ministries, sets prices for petroleum products, water, electricity, and public transport. MINICOM and the Ministry of Agriculture have fixed farm gate prices, or the market value of a cultivated product minus the selling costs, for agricultural products like coffee, maize, and Irish potatoes from time to time. On international tenders, a 10 percent price preference is available for local bidders, including those from regional economic integration bodies in which Rwanda is a member.
Some U.S. companies have expressed frustration that while authorities require them to operate as a formal enterprise that meets all Rwandan regulatory requirements, some local competitors are informal businesses that do not operate in full compliance with all regulatory requirements. Other investors have claimed unfair treatment compared to SOEs, ruling party-aligned or politically connected business competitors in securing public incentives and contracts.
Expropriation and Compensation
The 2015 Investment Code forbids the expropriation of investors’ property in the public interest unless the investor is fairly compensated. A new expropriation law came into force in 2015, which included more explicit protections for property owners.
A 2017 study by Rwanda Civil Society Platform argues that the government conducts expropriations on short notice and does not provide sufficient time or support to help landowners fairly negotiate compensation. The report includes a survey that found only 27 percent of respondents received information about planned expropriation well in advance of action. While mechanisms exist to challenge the government’s offer, the report notes that landowners are required to pay all expenses for the second valuation, a prohibitive cost for rural farmers or the urban poor. Media have reported that wealthier landowners have the ability to challenge valuations and have received higher amounts. Political exiles and other embattled opposition figures have been involved in taxation lawsuits that resulted in their “abandoned properties” being sold at auction, allegedly at below market values.
ICSID Convention and New York Convention
Rwanda is signatory to the International Center for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) and the African Trade Insurance Agency (ATI). ICSID seeks to remove impediments to private investment posed by non-commercial risks, while ATI covers risk against restrictions on import and export activities, inconvertibility, expropriation, war, and civil disturbances.
Rwanda ratified the New York Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards in 2008.
Investor-State Dispute Settlement
Rwanda is a member of the East African Court of Justice for the settlement of disputes arising from or pertaining to the EAC. Rwanda has also acceded to the 1958 New York Arbitration Convention and the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency convention. Under the U.S.-Rwanda BIT, U.S. investors have the right to bring investment disputes before neutral, international arbitration panels. Disputes between U.S. investors and the GOR in recent years have been resolved through international arbitration, court judgments, or out of court settlements. Judgments by foreign courts and contract clauses that abide by foreign law are accepted and enforced by local courts, though they lack capacity and experience to adjudicate cases governed by non-Rwandan law. There have been a number of private investment disputes in Rwanda, though the government has yet to stand as complainant, respondent, or third party in a WTO dispute settlement. Rwanda has been a party to two cases at ICSID since Rwanda became a member in 1963; one of these cases is an ongoing case brought by an American investor against Rwanda. SOEs are also subject to domestic and international disputes. SOEs and ruling party-owned companies party to suits have both won and lost judgments in the past.
International Commercial Arbitration and Foreign Courts
In 2012, the GOR launched the Kigali International Arbitration Center (KIAC). KIAC case handling rules are modeled on the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) arbitration rules. By July 2019, KIAC reviewed 115 cases worth USD 64 million in claims involving petitions from 19 different nationalities since 2012. Some businesses report being pressured to use the Rwanda-based KIAC for the seat of arbitration in contracts signed with the GOR. Because KIAC has a short track record and its domiciled in Rwanda, these companies would prefer arbitration take place in a third country, and some have reported difficulty in securing international financing due to KIAC provision in their contracts.
Rwanda ranks 38 out of 190 economies for resolving insolvency in the World Bank’s 2020 Doing Business Report and is number two in Africa. It takes an average of two and a half years to conclude bankruptcy proceedings in Rwanda. The recovery rate for creditors on insolvent firms was reported at 19.3 cents on the dollar, with judgments typically made in local currency.
In April 2018, the GOR instituted a new Insolvency and Bankruptcy Law. One major change is the introduction of an article on “pooling of assets” allowing creditors to pursue parent companies and other members of the group, in case a subsidiary is in liquidation. The new law can be accessed here:
5. Protection of Property Rights
The law protects and facilitates acquisition and disposition of all property rights. Investors involved in commercial agriculture have leasehold titles and are able to secure property titles, if necessary. The 2015 Investment Code states that investors shall have the right to own private property, whether individually or in association with others. Foreign investors can acquire real estate, though there is a general limit on land ownership. While local investors can acquire land through leasehold agreements that extend to 99 years, the lease period for foreigners has been as limited to 49 years, in some cases. Such leases are theoretically renewable, but the law is new enough that foreigners generally have not yet attempted to renew a lease. Mortgages are a nascent but growing financial product in Rwanda, increasing from 770 properties in 2008 to 13,394 in 2017, according to the RDB.
Intellectual Property Rights
The 2015 Investment Code guarantees protection of investors’ intellectual property rights (IPR), and legitimate rights related to technology transfer. IPR legislation covering patents, trademarks, and copyrights was approved in 2009. A Registration Service Agency, which is part of the RDB, was established in 2008 and has improved IPR t protection by registering all commercial entities and facilitating business identification and branding. The RDB and the RSB are the main regulatory bodies for Rwanda’s intellectual property rights law. The RDB registers intellectual property rights, providing a certificate and ownership title. Every registered IPR title is published in the Official Gazette. The fees payable for substance examination and registration of IPR apply equally to domestic and foreign applicants. Since 2016, any power of attorney that a non-resident grants to a Rwandan-based industrial property agent must be notarized. (Previously, a signature would have been sufficient.)
Registration of patents and trademarks is on a first time, first right basis, so companies should consider applying for trademark and patent protection in a timely manner. It is the responsibility of the copyright holders to register, protect, and enforce their rights where relevant, including retaining their own counsel and advisors. Through the RSB and the RRA, Rwanda has worked to increase IPR protection, but many goods that violate patents, especially pharmaceutical products, make it to market nonetheless. As many products available in Rwanda are re-exports from other EAC countries, it may be difficult to prevent counterfeit goods without regional cooperation. Also, investors reported difficulties in registering patents and having rules against infringement of their property rights enforced in a timely manner.
Rwanda conducts anti-counterfeit goods campaigns on a regular basis, but statistics on IPR enforcement are not publicly available. A few companies have expressed concern over inappropriate use of their intellectual property. While the government has offered rhetorical support, enforcement has been mixed. In some cases, infringement has stopped, but in other cases, companies have been frustrated with the slow pace of receiving judgment or of receiving compensation after successful legal cases.
As a COMESA member, Rwanda is automatically a member of African Regional Intellectual Property Organization. Rwanda is also a member of the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and is working toward harmonizing its legislation with WTO Agreement on the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property (TRIPS). Rwanda has yet to ratify WIPO Internet Treaties, though the government has taken steps to implement and enforce TRIPS Agreement. In addition to TRIPS, Rwanda is a party to the following treaties and conventions: the Paris Convention; the Berne Convention; the Patent Cooperation Treaty; the Madrid Protocol; the Hague Agreement; and the Brussels Convention. Rwanda is not a party to the following treaties and conventions: the Beijing Treaty; the Budapest Treaty; Locarno Agreement; the Marrakesh Treaty; the Nairobi Treaty; the Nice Agreement; the Phonograms Convention; the Singapore Treaty; the Strasbourg Agreement ; the Trademark Law Treaty; the Vienna Convention; the WIPO Copyright Treaty; and the WIPO Performance and Phonograms Treaty.
Rwanda is not included in the United States Trade Representative (USTR)Special 301 Report or the Notorious Markets List.