Honduras contains all the ingredients for a thriving, prosperous economy: strategic location next to U.S. markets with a deep-water port, a rich endowment of natural resources, breathtaking tourist destinations, and hard-working people, including a significant cadre of skilled labor. Despite these advantages, per capita income in Honduras is the third lowest in all Latin America. Investors cite corruption, crime, and poor infrastructure and weak or nonexistent rule of law as the primary reasons that Honduras does not attract more of the private investment it needs to stimulate inclusive economic growth. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), real Honduran GDP grew by 12.5 percent in 2021, a rebound from the devastating effects in 2020 of the COVID-19 pandemic and twin hurricanes Eta and Iota. The IMF predicts the economy will grow by 3.8 percent in 2022.
The 2022 inauguration of Honduras first woman president, Xiomara Castro, marked the beginning of a new era in the country’s political economy. The participation of U.S. Vice President Harris at President Castro’s inauguration exemplified the strong U.S. commitment to Honduras. The two countries have committed to work jointly to address the root causes of migration, including by combating corruption and expanding economic opportunity. Since taking office, the Castro administration has launched initiatives to reduce corruption, improve education and public health, and create jobs.
These laudable efforts have been frustrated by fiscal challenges, including budget planning and debt management. Although the United States and international organizations including the IMF assess Honduras as low risk for debt distress, public messaging from the administration announcing a fiscal crisis roiled international bond markets, driving up the risk premium on Honduran debt. To address these budget shortfalls, the government announced it will utilize its foreign reserves to finance operations, which could put additional inflationary pressure on the economy. To help Honduras implement its social agenda without increasing its debt burden, the United States has begun a debt management technical assistance program with the Ministry of Finance.
In both public and private, the Castro administration emphasizes the need for job creation and private investment in Honduras. The government approved a new law in 2022 to facilitate the development and formalization of Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs). The government’s Results-Based Governance system and other anti-corruption efforts are excellent examples of efforts to improve the investment climate. From the perspective of the private sector, however, these efforts have been overshadowed by policy decisions that have dramatically increased the uncertainty of investment returns. Chief among these was the May 2022 approval of a new energy law that threatens power generators with forced sale at a “just price” if they do not reduce their tariffs to the government’s satisfaction. The law provides no guarantee of future payment, stipulates that new energy investment must be majority state-owned, and all but eliminates private trade in energy. As a result of the new law, several private energy companies have discontinued planned projects in Honduras and are exploring investment opportunities in other countries in the region.
The Castro administration also eliminated the special economic zones known as “ZEDEs” by their initials in Spanish. The ZEDEs were broadly unpopular, including with much of the private sector, and viewed as a vector for corruption. Rather than pursuing reforms or seeking dialogue with the ZEDE investors, by eliminating the frameworks without any regard for the protections afforded the investors under the U.S.-Honduras Bilateral Investor Treaty (BIT) or the Dominican Republic-Central America Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR), the government has exposed itself to potentially significant liability and fueled concerns about the government’s commitment to commercial rule of law.
Another government policy contributing to uncertainty in the investment climate has been the elimination of the legal framework used by most businesses to employ per-hour workers. The law’s repeal fulfilled a Castro campaign promise, responding to criticism by labor unions that temporary work allowed companies to evade their social security obligations and exploit workers. Business representatives note, however, that many industries, including retail, tourism, and food service rely heavily on hourly labor and will be constrained by the new framework. Civil society representatives also point out that the change adversely affects women and students, who relied on hourly work to manage households and school schedules, although union leaders counter that the previous framework allowed employers to target women and young people for economic exploitation, given that their personal circumstances often do not allow them to take on full-time employment.
Many foreign investors in Honduras operate thriving enterprises. At the same time, all investors face challenges including unreliable and expensive electricity, corruption, unpredictable tax application and enforcement, high crime, low education levels, and poor infrastructure. Squatting on private land is an increasingly severe problem in Honduras and anti-squatting laws are poorly enforced. Continued low-level protests and strikes are additional concerns for private investors.
Despite these setbacks, over 200 American companies operate businesses in Honduras. Honduras enjoys preferential market access to the United States under CAFTA-DR, which has allowed for the development of intra-industry trade in textiles and electrical machinery, among other sectors. The proximity to the United States and established supply chain linkages means that opportunities exist to increase nearshoring sourcing to meet U.S. demand for a variety of goods. The White House “Call to Action to Deepen Investment in the Northern Triangle” is designed to coordinate increased U.S. investment in the region, including Honduras. This program, along with others, aims to support sustained and inclusive economic development in Honduras and surrounding countries.
1. Openness To, and Restrictions Upon, Foreign Investment
Policies Towards Foreign Direct Investment
Honduras is generally open to foreign investment and government leaders consistently assert their desire to attract investment. At the same time, recent government actions have increased uncertainty in the investment climate. The legal framework for investment includes the Honduran constitution, the investment chapter of CAFTA-DR (which takes precedence over most domestic law), and the 2011 Law for the Promotion and Protection of Investments. The Honduran constitution requires all foreign investment to complement, but not substitute for, national investment. Honduras’ legal obligations guarantee national treatment and most favored nation treatment for U.S. investments in most sectors of the Honduran economy and include enhanced benefits in the areas of insurance and arbitration for domestic and foreign investors. CAFTA-DR has equal status with the constitution in most sectors of the Honduran economy. In addition to liberalizing trade in goods and services, CAFTA-DR includes important requirements relating to investment, customs administration and trade facilitation, technical barriers to trade, government procurement, telecommunications, electronic commerce, intellectual property rights, transparency, and labor and environmental protection.
Representatives from the international investment community have voiced concerns that several Castro administration policies have made the investment climate in Honduras less attractive. For example, after the hourly employment law was repealed in April 2022, all Honduran employees must now be salaried, eliminating flexible hiring practices vital for seasonal work. In addition, the threat of expropriation in a May 2022 energy law damaged perceptions of commercial rule of law in Honduras, increasing state control of the sector and leaving many investors wondering which other sectors will be subjected to government coercion and threats. The repeal of the framework establishing the special economic “ZEDE” zones further contributed to uncertainty over the government’s commitment to investment protections required by international treaties. And the Castro administration’s tendency to pass important laws very quickly, with little consultation or consideration of secondary and tertiary effects has created concerns about the stability and predictability of the investment environment.
The National Investment Council, the Ministry of Investment Promotion, and the Ministry of Economic Development all have equities in attracting foreign investment and an ambitious job creation mandate. Critics complain that lack of clarity and overlapping responsibilities among these entities undermine the government’s ability to effectively promote Honduras as a profitable destination for foreign capital.
Limits on Foreign Control and Right to Private Ownership and Establishment
Honduras’ Investment Law does not limit foreign ownership of businesses, except for those specifically reserved for Honduran investors, including small firms with capital less than $6,300 and the domestic air transportation industry. For all investments, at least 90 percent of companies’ labor forces must be Honduran, and companies must pay at least 85 percent of their payrolls to Hondurans. Majority ownership by Honduran citizens is required for companies in the commercial fishing sector, forestry, local transportation, radio, television, or benefiting from the Agrarian Reform Law. There is no screening or approval process specific to foreign direct investments in Honduras. Foreign investors are subject to the same requirements for environmental and other regulatory approvals as domestic investors.
According to the law, investors can establish, acquire, and dispose of enterprises at market prices under freely negotiated conditions without government intervention, but some foreign business operators report difficulty closing businesses. Private enterprises fairly compete with public enterprises on market access, credit, and other business operations. Foreign investors have the right to own property, subject to certain restrictions established by the Honduran constitution and several laws relating to property rights. Investors may acquire, profit, use, and dispose of property ownership with the exception of land within 40 kilometers of international borders and shorelines. Honduran law does permit, however, foreign individuals to purchase properties close to shorelines in designated “tourism zones.”
The Honduran government has worked to simplify administrative procedures for establishing a company in recent years, including by offering many processes online. Government of Honduras (GOH) officials are pressing for, and have made good progress in, the digitalization of business, import, permitting and licensing, and taxation processes to increase efficiency and transparency, but procedural red tape to obtain government approval for investment activities remains common, especially at the local level. Honduras’ business registration information portal (https://honduras.eregulations.org/ ) provides clear step-by-step information on registering a business, including fees, agencies, and required documents.
Honduras does not promote or incentivize outward investment.
2. Bilateral Investment and Taxation Treaties
A Bilateral Investment Treaty (BIT) between the United States and Honduras entered into force in 2001. The U.S.-Honduras Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Consular Rights (1928) provides for Most Favored Nation treatment for investors of either country. The United States and Honduras also signed an agreement for the guarantee of private investments in 1955 and an agreement on investment guarantees in 1966. CAFTA-DR supersedes most provisions of these agreements. Honduras and the United States signed a Tax Information Exchange Agreement in 1990. In 2014, Honduras and the United States signed the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act.
Provisions for investment are included in free trade agreements between Honduras and the United States, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, the Dominican Republic, Colombia, Taiwan, South Korea, and the European Union. These agreements supersede many of the provisions of Honduras’ separate Bilateral Investment Treaties with these countries. Honduras also has separate Bilateral Investment Treaties with the Republic of Korea and with Switzerland.
Honduras is a member of the OECD Inclusive Framework on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting and is party to the Inclusive Framework’s October 2021 agreement on the global minimum corporate tax.
3. Legal Regime
Transparency of the Regulatory System
The GOH publishes approved regulations in the official government Gazette. Honduras lacks an indexed legal code so lawyers and judges must maintain their own libraries of law publications. The government does not have a process to solicit comments on proposed regulations from the general public.
CAFTA-DR requires host governments publish proposed regulations that could affect businesses or investments. Honduras made significant progress in 2019 and 2020 in relation to the publication and availability of information under CAFTA-DR. Honduras notified Article 1 technical provisions, per CAFTA-DR requirements, and the Customs Administration (ADUANAS) and Sanitary Regulatory Agency (ARSA) have improved publication of regulations through their official online portals.
Some U.S. investors experience long waiting periods for environmental permits and other regulatory and legislative approvals. Sectors in which U.S. companies frequently encounter problems include infrastructure, telecoms, mining, and energy. Generally, regulatory requirements are complex and lengthy and vulnerable to rent-seeking and corruption. Regulatory approvals require congressional intervention if the time exceeds a presidential term of four years. Current regulations are available at the Honduran government’s eRegulations website (http://honduras.eregulations.org/ ). While the majority of regulations are at the national level, municipal level regulations also exist and can be very discouraging to investment. No significant regulatory changes of relevance to foreign investors were announced since the last report. Public comments received by regulators are not published. The government does not promote or require companies’ environmental, social, and governance (ESG) disclosure to facilitate transparency and/or help investors and consumers distinguish between high- and low-quality investments.
International Regulatory Considerations
As a member of the WTO, Honduras notifies all draft technical regulations to the WTO Committee on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT).
Legal System and Judicial Independence
Honduras has a civil law system. The Honduran Commercial Code, enacted in 1950, regulates business operations and falls under the jurisdiction of the Honduran civil court system. The Civil Procedures Code, which entered into force in 2010, introduced the use of open, oral arguments for adversarial procedures. The Civil Procedures Code provides for protection of commercial transactions, property rights, and land tenure. It also established a process for the enforcement of rulings issued by foreign courts. Despite these codes, U.S. claimants have noted the lack of transparency and the slow administration of justice in the courts. U.S. firms report favoritism, external pressure, and bribes within the judicial system. They also mention the poor quality of legal representation from Honduran attorneys.
Resolving an investment or commercial dispute in the local Honduran courts is often a lengthy process. Foreign investors report dispute resolution typically involves multiple appeals and decisions at different levels of the Honduran judicial system. Each decision can take months or years, and it is usually not possible for the parties to predict the time required to obtain a decision. An electronic case management system has recently been introduced with US Government support to increase transparency and reduce corruption. This system is gradually being rolled out to the different courts. Final decisions from Honduran courts or from arbitration panels often require subsequent enforcement from lower courts to take effect, requiring additional time. Foreign investors sometimes prefer to resolve disputes with suppliers, customers, or partners out of court when possible. Honduras has a very high-quality mechanism for alternate dispute resolution.
Laws and Regulations on Foreign Direct Investment
Honduras’ Investment Law requires all local and foreign direct investment be registered with the Investment Office in the Ministry of Economic Development. Upon registration, the Investment Office issues certificates to guarantee international arbitration rights under CAFTA-DR. An investor who believes the government has not honored a substantive obligation under CAFTA-DR may pursue CAFTA-DR’s dispute settlement mechanism, as detailed in the Investment Chapter. The claim’s proceedings and documents are generally open to the public.
The Government of Honduras requires authorization for both foreign and domestic investments in the following areas:
Basic health services
Generation, transmission, and distribution of electricity
Fishing, hunting, and aquaculture
Exploitation of forestry resources
Agricultural and agro-industrial activities exceeding land tenancy limits established by the Agricultural Modernization Law of 1992 and the Land Reform Law of 1974
Insurance and financial services
Investigation, exploration, and exploitation of mines, quarries, petroleum, and related substances.
The Government of Honduras offers one-stop business set-up at its My Business Online website, which helps domestic and international investors submit initial business registry information and provides step-by-step instructions. (https://www.miempresaenlinea.org/ ) However, formalizing a business still requires visiting a municipal chamber of commerce window for registration and permits, a process vulnerable to rent-seeking and corruption.
Competition and Antitrust Laws
The Commission for the Defense and Promotion of Competition (CDPC) is the Honduran government agency that reviews proposed transactions for competition-related concerns. Honduras’ Competition Law established the CDPC in 2005 as part of the effort to implement CAFTA-DR. The Honduran Congress appoints the members of the CDPC, which functions as an independent regulatory commission.
Laws that grant sole companies exclusive distribution rights for imported goods have created artificial monopolies in Honduras, hindering the availability and raising the price of imported goods in the Honduran market.
Expropriation and Compensation
The Honduran government has the authority to expropriate property for purposes of land reform or public use. The National Agrarian Reform Law provides that idle land fit for farming can be expropriated and awarded to indigent and landless persons via the Honduran National Agrarian Institute. In 2013, the Honduran government passed legislation regarding recovery and reassignment of concessions on underutilized assets. Both local and foreign firms have expressed concerns that the law does not specify what the government considers “underutilized.” The government has not published implementing regulations for the law nor indicated plans to use the law against any private sector firm. The May 2022 energy law threatens energy producers with expropriation if they do not renegotiate their power-purchasing agreements to the government’s satisfaction.
Government expropriation of land owned by U.S. companies is rare. CAFTA-DR’s Investment Chapter Section 10.7 states no party may expropriate or nationalize a covered investment either directly or indirectly, with limited public purpose exceptions that require prompt and adequate compensation. Under the Agrarian Reform Law, the Honduran government must compensate expropriated land partly in cash and partly in 15-, 20-, or 25-year government bonds. The portion to be paid in cash cannot exceed $1,000 if the expropriated land has at least one building and it cannot exceed $500 if the land is in use but has no buildings. If the land is not in use, the government will compensate entirely in 25-year government bonds.
Land invasions by squatters on both Honduran and foreign-owned land are increasingly common, especially in agricultural areas. These invasions have grown more frequent in 2022, sometimes leading to violent confrontations. Owners of disputed land have found pursuing legal avenues costly, time consuming, and ineffective at enforcing property rights.
ICSID Convention and New York Convention
Honduras is a member state to the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) Convention. Honduras has also ratified the convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (1958 New York Convention)
Investor State Dispute Settlement
CAFTA-DR provides dispute settlement procedures between the United States and Honduras. CAFTA-DR’s Investment Chapter dispute settlement mechanism allows an investor who believes the government has not honored a substantive obligation under CAFTA-DR to request a binding international arbitration. Proceedings and documents submitted to substantiate the claim are generally open to the public. The agreement provides basic protections, such as non-discriminatory treatment, limits on performance requirements, the free transfer of funds related to an investment, protection from expropriation other than in conformity with customary international law, a minimum standard of treatment, and the ability to hire key managerial personnel regardless of nationality.
International Commercial Arbitration and Foreign Courts
Honduras’ Conciliation and Arbitration Law, established in 2000, outlines procedures for arbitration and defines the procedures under which they take place. The Investment Law permits investors to request arbitration directly, a swifter and more cost-effective means of resolving disputes between commercial entities. Arbitrators and mediators may have specialized expertise in technical areas involved in specific disputes. Local courts recognize and enforce foreign arbitral awards issues against the government. Judgements from foreign courts are recognized and enforceable under local courts.
The following organizations provide more localized information:
Tegucigalpa Chamber of Industry and Commerce – Center for Conciliation and Arbitration
San Pedro Sula Chamber of Industry and Commerce – Center for Conciliation and Arbitration
Numerous U.S. investors who have been involved with the judicial system in Honduras mention it can be inefficient, lacks transparency, and is subject to political influence and/or corruption. International donors have been working with the Honduran judiciary and prosecutors to try to improve the capabilities, effectiveness, and transparency of the justice system.
Companies that default in payment of their obligations in Honduras can declare bankruptcy. A Honduran court must ratify a bankruptcy for it to take effect. These cases are regulated by the country’s Commercial Code.
The judicial ruling that declares the bankruptcy of the company establishes the value of the assets, the recognition and classification of the credits, the procedure for the sale of assets and the schedule for the payment of the obligations, in the case that it is not possible for the company to continue its operations. The ruling must be published in the Gazette. The liquidation of companies is always a judicial matter, except in the case of banking institutions which are liquidated by the National Banking and Insurance Commission.
Any creditor or a company itself may initiate the liquidation procedure, which is generally a civil matter. The judge appoints a liquidator to execute the procedure. A mechanism that a company may exercise to prevent bankruptcy is to request a suspension of payments from the judge. If approved by the judge and the creditors, the company may be able to reach an agreement with its creditors that allows the same administrative board to maintain control of the company.
A company may be prosecuted for fraudulently declaring bankruptcy in the case that the administrative board or shareholders withdraw their assets before the declaration, alter accounting books making it impossible to determine the real situation of the company, or favor certain creditors granting them benefits that they would not be entitled to otherwise.
4. Industrial Policies
The 2017 Tourism Incentives Law offers tax exemptions for national and international investment in tourism development projects. The law provides income tax exemptions for the first 10 years of a project and permits the duty-free import of goods needed for a project, including publicity materials. To receive benefits, a business must be located in a designated tourism zone. Restaurants, casinos, nightclubs, movie theaters, and certain other businesses are not eligible for incentives under this law. Foreigners or foreign companies seeking to purchase property exceeding 3,000 square meters for tourism or other development projects in designated tourism zones must present an application to the Honduran Tourism Institute at the Ministry of Tourism. The buyer must prove a contract to purchase the property exists and present feasibility studies and plans about the proposed tourism project.
Foreign Trade Zones/Free Ports/Trade Facilitation
The Honduran government historically has offered four primary tax-advantaged structures to incentivize investment in Honduras: the Free Trade Zone (ZOLI), the Free Tourism Zone (ZOLT), the Industrial Zone for Export Processing (ZIP) and the Temporary Import Law (RIT). Although there has been no formal announcement, the Castro administration has expressed its intentions both publicly and privately to eliminate these tax incentive structures.
Both ZOLIs and ZIPs allow foreign investors tariff and tax incentives for export-only manufacturing. The following cities have been designated as free zones: Puerto Cortes, Omoa, Choloma, Tela, La Ceiba, and Amapala. The government allows the establishment of ZIPs anywhere in the country. Currently, ZIPs are located in Choloma, Buffalo, La Lima, San Pedro Sula, Tegucigalpa, and Villanueva. Companies operating in ZIPs are exempt from paying import duties and other charges on goods and capital equipment. The RIT allows exporters to introduce raw materials, parts, and capital equipment (except vehicles) into Honduras exempt from surcharges and customs duties if a manufacturer incorporates the input into a product for export (up to five percent can be sold locally). Additional information on these incentive programs is available from the National Investment Council (https://www.cni.hn).
In April 2022, President Castro abolished Honduras’ Zones for Employment and Economic Development (ZEDEs), the largely autonomous economic zones created by the Honduran National Congress in 2013. Opponents viewed ZEDEs as an unconstitutional abrogation of Honduran sovereignty, ceding national territory and resources to rich investors who would elude Honduras’ already weak oversight of environmental standards, property laws, human rights, and labor standards, while providing no economic benefit to ordinary Hondurans. ZEDE owners saw them as an opportunity to spur economic growth through secure, privately-run enclaves with their own tax and regulatory schemes, security forces, and dispute-resolution mechanisms, as well as a model of how life could be in Honduras with more government efficiency and less corruption. ZEDE owners, who are exploring possible litigation, say they relied in good faith on the legality of the ZEDE law and have tried to negotiate with the Castro Administration to identify a mutually satisfactory way forward, but the government has so far been unwilling to engage in talks.
Honduras ratified the World Trade Organization’s (WTO) Trade Facilitation Agreement (TFA) in July 2016, agreeing to expedite the movement, release, and clearance of goods, including goods in transit. The TFA also sets out measures for effective cooperation between customs and other appropriate authorities on trade facilitation and customs compliance issues. According to the WTO/TFA database, Honduras’ current rate of implementation of TFA Category A notification commitments stands at 58.4 percent. The Honduran government has received significant technical assistance from the U.S. government to meet compliance requirements in publication, notification, advance rulings, border agency cooperation, and establishing a national trade facilitation committee. Honduras, Guatemala, and El Salvador operate a trilateral customs union to foster and increase efficient cross-border trade, but implementation challenges persist. Honduras uses digitized import permits for agricultural products to reduce costs and dispatch times. Honduras and Guatemala also use an online pre-arrival screening protocol to reduce border times and transit costs for goods.
With U.S. support, the GOH has advanced several initiatives to facilitate trade and reduce dispatch times and costs at key land and sea borders. Use of high-spec tablets by Aduanas (Customs) at Puerto Cortes has reduced dispatch times by over 30 percent; expansion of tablet use is envisioned to La Mesa as well (San Pedro Sula airport Customs). A streamlined inspections manual for to be adopted by Aduanas and the National Health and Agrifood Safety Entity (SENASA) as well as additional IT developments to integrate Aduanas and SENASA inspection systems will further compound time and cost reductions at key land and border crossings. Trade policy is overseen by the National Trade Committee, chaired by the Minister of Economic Development.
Many U.S. companies that operate in Honduras take advantage of the commercial framework established by the Central American and Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA-DR). Substantial intra-industry trade now occurs in textiles and electrical machinery, alongside continued trade in traditional Honduran exports such as coffee and bananas.
The government rushed the opening in December 2021 of an incomplete, controversial new airport, Palmerola, designed to reduce costs for airlines, passengers, and shipping companies once cargo processing procedures have been fully implemented. The airport connects with a recently completed highway (the ‘Dry Canal’) to the Pacific coast and with another highway to the Caribbean coast and its deep-water port – for a sea-to-sea logistics and transit system. As of this writing, cargo functions are not operational at the airport and drive time to Tegucigalpa is approximately an hour and a half.
Performance and Data Localization Requirements
The Honduran government encourages foreign investors to hire locally and to make use of domestic content, especially in manufacturing and agriculture. The government looks favorably on investment projects that contribute to employment growth, either directly or indirectly. U.S. investors in Honduras have not reported instances in which the government has imposed performance or localization requirements on investments.
The Honduran government and courts can require foreign and domestic investors that operate in Honduras to turn over data for use in criminal investigations or civil proceedings. Honduran law enforcement, prosecutors, and civil courts have the authority to make such requests.
5. Protection of Property Rights
Honduran law recognizes secured interests in movable and real property. The Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Tegucigalpa (CCIT) and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of San Pedro Sula (CCIC) both manage their own merchant records. The national property registry is managed by the Property Institute. The right for CCIT and CCIC to administer their own merchant registries is derived from a concession in Honduras’ secured transactions law.
Land title procedures have been an issue leading to investment disputes involving U.S. nationals who are landowners, especially, but not limited to, the tourist destination of Roatan. Title insurance is not widely available in Honduras and approximately 80 percent of the privately held land in the country is either untitled or improperly titled. Resolution of disputes in court often takes years. There are claims of widespread corruption in land sales, deed filing, and dispute resolution, including claims against attorneys, real estate companies, judges, and local officials. Although Honduras has made some progress, the property registration system is perceived as unreliable and represents a constraint on investment, particularly in the Bay Islands. In addition, a lack of implementing regulations leads to long delays in the awarding of titles in some regions.
Intellectual Property Rights
The legislative framework for the protection of intellectual property (IP) rights , which includes the Honduran copyright law and its industrial property law, is generally adequate, but often poorly enforced. Honduras has enacted legislation to implement its obligations under the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) of the World Trade Organization (WTO). Honduran law protects data exclusivity for a period of five years and protects process patents, but does not recognize second-use patents. The Property Institute and Public Ministry handle IP protection and enforcement.
CAFTA-DR Chapter 15 on Intellectual Property Rights further provides for the protection and enforcement of a range of IP rights, which are consistent with U.S. and international standards . There are also provisions on deterrence of piracy and counterfeiting. Additionally, CAFTA-DR provides authorities the ability to confiscate pirated goods and investigate intellectual property cases on their own initiative.
The Honduran legal framework provides deterrence against piracy and counterfeiting by requiring the seizure, forfeiture, and destruction of counterfeit and pirated goods and the equipment used to produce them. The law also provides for statutory damages for copyright and trademark infringement, to ensure monetary damages are awarded even when losses associated with an infringement are difficult to assign.
Digital piracy is widespread and frequently ignored in Honduras, especially by telecommunications companies. The Special Prosecutor for IP will not investigate a case unless it receives a complaint from a rights holder. Often, rights holders do not submit complaints because of either the perceived bureaucratic process or the fear of losing business. In addition, sentencing for IP crimes remains ineffective to deter future violations. IP violators typically receive a three-to-six-year sentence and an approximately $2,000 fine. If a sentence is less than five years, however, the convicted party can choose to pay a larger fine and not serve any jail time.
Honduras is not listed in United States Trade Representative’s 2021 Special 301 Report or its 2020 Review of Notorious Markets for Counterfeiting and Piracy.
There are no government restrictions on foreign investors’ access to local credit markets, though the local banking system generally extends only limited amounts of credit. Investors should not consider local banks a significant capital resource for new foreign ventures unless they use specific business development credit lines made available by bilateral or multilateral financial institutions such as the Central American Bank for Economic Integration.
A limited number of credit instruments are available in the local market. The only security exchange operating in the country is the Central American Securities Exchange (BCV) in Tegucigalpa, but investors should exercise caution before buying securities listed on it. Supervised by the National Banking and Insurance Commission (CNBS), the BCV theoretically offers instruments to trade bankers’ acceptances, repurchase agreements, short-term promissory notes, Honduran government private debt conversion bonds, and land reform repayment bonds. In practice, however, the BCV is almost entirely composed of short- and medium-term government securities and no formal secondary market for these bonds exists.
A few banks have offered fixed rate and floating rate notes with maturities of up to three years, but outside of the banks’ issuances, the private sector does not sell debt or corporate stock on the exchange. Any private business is eligible to trade its financial instruments on the BCV, and firms that participate are subject to a rigorous screening process, including public disclosure and ratings by a recognized rating agency. Historically, most traded firms have had economic ties to the other business and financial groups represented as shareholders of the exchange. As a result, risk management practices are lax and public confidence in the institution is limited.
Money and Banking System
The Honduran financial system is comprised of commercial banks, state-owned banks, savings and loans institutions, and financial companies. There are currently 15 commercial banks, and 10 financial groups operating in Honduras. There is no offshore banking or homegrown blockchain technology in Honduras. Honduras has a highly professional, independent Central Bank and an effective banking regulator, the Comisión Nacional de Bancos y Seguros. While access to credit remains limited in Honduras, especially for historically underserved populations, the financial sector is a source of economic stability in the country.
Foreign Exchange and Remittances
Article 10.8 of CAFTA-DR ensures the free transfer of funds related to a covered investment. Local financial institutions freely exchange U.S. dollars and other foreign currencies. Foreigners may open bank accounts with a valid passport. For deposits exceeding the maximum deposits specified for different account types (corporate or small-medium enterprises), banks require documentation verifying the fund’s origin.
The Investment Law guarantees foreign investors access to foreign currency needed to transfer funds associated with their investments in Honduras, including:
Imports of goods and services necessary to operate
Payment of royalty fees, rents, annuities, and technical assistance
Remittance of dividends and capital repatriation
The Central Bank of Honduras instituted a crawling peg in 2011 that allows the lempira to fluctuate against the U.S. dollar by seven percent per year. The Central Bank mandates any daily price of the crawling peg be no greater than 100.075 percent of the average for the prior seven daily auctions. These restrictions limit devaluation to a maximum of 4.8 percent annually. As of April 29, 2022, the exchange rate is 24.34 lempira to the U.S. dollar.
The Central Bank uses an auction system to allocate foreign exchange based on the following regulations:
The Central Bank sets base prices every five auctions according to the differential between the domestic inflation rate and the inflation rate of Honduras’ main commercial partners.
The Central Bank’s Board of Directors determines the procedure to set the base.
The Board of Directors establishes the exchange commission and the exchange agencies in their foreign exchange transactions.
Individuals and corporate bodies can participate in the auction system for dollar purchases, either by themselves or through an exchange agency. The offers can be no less than $10,000, no more than $300,000 for individuals, and no more than $1.2 million for corporations.
To date, the U.S. Embassy in Honduras has not received complaints from individuals regarding the process for converting or transferring funds associated with investments.
The Investment Law guarantees investors the right to remit their investment returns and, if they liquidate their investments, to remit the principal capital invested. Foreign investors that choose to remit their investment proceeds from Honduras do so through foreign exchange transactions at Honduran banks or foreign banks operating in Honduras. These exchange transactions are subject to the same foreign exchange process and regulation as other transactions.
Sovereign Wealth Funds
Honduras does not have a sovereign wealth fund.
7. State-Owned Enterprises
Most state-owned enterprises are in telecommunications, electricity, water utilities, banking, and commercial ports. The main state-owned Honduran telephone company, Hondutel, has private contracts with eight foreign and domestic carriers. The GOH has yet to establish a legal framework for foreign companies to obtain licenses and concessions to provide long distance and international calling. As a result, investors remain unsure if they can become fully independent telecommunication service providers.
The state-owned National Electric Energy Company (ENEE) is the single largest contributor to the country’s fiscal deficit. Due to years of mismanagement and corruption, ENEE loses over $30 million every month and its debt amounts to more than 10 percent of Honduran GDP. With the May 2022 energy law, the government has reversed energy reform legislation that called for the separation of ENEE into three independent units for distribution, transmission, and generation. The law also weakened the electricity regulator and eliminated the independent systems operator. Electricity subsector experts say that dispatch decisions have become much less transparent since the elimination of the systems operator, a disincentive for new investment. The electrical subsector faces serious structural problems, including high electricity system losses, a transmission system in need of upgrades, vulnerability of generation costs to volatile international oil prices, an electricity tariff that does not reflect actual costs, and the high costs of long-term power purchase agreements (PPAs), which have often been awarded directly to companies with political connections instead of via a fair and transparent tendering and procurement process. Many businesses have installed on-site power generation systems to supplement or substitute for power from ENEE due to frequent blackouts and high tariffs.
Honduran law grants municipalities the right to manage water distribution and to grant concessions to private enterprises. Major cities with public-private concessions include San Pedro Sula, Puerto Cortes, and Choloma. The state water authority National Autonomous Aqueduct and Sewer Service (SANAA) manages Tegucigalpa’s water distribution. Persistent water shortages are another constraint on private enterprise in Honduras, especially during the spring dry season. The Honduran National Port Company (ENP) is the state-owned organization that oversees management of the country’s government-operated maritime ports, including Puerto Cortes, La Ceiba, Puerto Castilla, and San Lorenzo. Private companies Central American Port Operators and Maritime Ports of Honduras have 30-year concessions to operate container and bulk shipping facilities at Honduras’ principal port Puerto Cortes.
The Honduran government is not seeking to privatize state-owned enterprises. The May 2022 energy law aims to increase government control over the electricity sector.
8. Responsible Business Conduct
Awareness of the importance of Responsible Business Conduct (RBC) is growing among both producers and consumers in Honduras. An increasing number of local and foreign companies operating in Honduras include conduct-related responsibility practices in their business strategies. The Honduran Corporate Social Responsibility Foundation (FUNDAHRSE) has become a strong proponent in its efforts to promote transparency in the business climate and provides the Honduran private sector, particularly small- and medium-sized businesses, with the skills to engage in responsible business practices. FUNDAHRSE’s approximately 110 members can apply for the foundation’s “Corporate Social Responsibility Enterprise” seal for exemplary responsible business conduct involving work in areas related to health, education, environment, codes of ethics, employment relations, and responsible marketing.
RBC related to the environment and outreach to local communities is especially important to the success of investment projects in Honduras. Several major foreign investment projects in Honduras have stalled due to concerns about environmental impact, land rights issues, lack of transparency, and problematic consultative processes with local communities, particularly indigenous communities. Although the International Labor Organization Convention 169 on Indigenous and Tribal Peoples was ratified by the GOH in 1995 and Honduras voted in favor of UN’s Indigenous People’s rights in 2007, there is still much to do in the area. There is still a need for foreign investors to build trust with local communities, while employing international best practices and standards to reduce the risk of conflict and promote sustainable and equitable development.
Examples of international best practices include the following:
Voluntary Principles on Security and Human Rights Initiative
The UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights
The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises.
GOH has a National Adaptation and Climate Strategy and a Biodiversity Strategy. In 2022, the Castro Administration created the Environmental Cabinet comprised of Ministries of Environment, Forestry, Agriculture, Energy, Economic Development and Finance and the Protected Areas and Wildlife Institute. The purpose of this body is to coordinate interagency efforts to address climate change, biodiversity conservation and Forestry Management. The GOH has taken positive steps to implement climate related policies including a National Adaption and Climate Strategy and a Biodiversity Strategy. The GOH has not established policies to reach net-zero carbon emissions by 2050. However, in collaboration with the UN, GOH conducted sectoral studies to determine Nationally Determined Contributions (NDC) and drafted a greenhouse gases mitigation strategy. While sectoral studies provided recommendations and targets for NDCs, these recommendations have not translated into official policy. The GOH does have an ecotax to support efforts to administer protected areas, which generally adds additional taxes on imported cars. At this time, the GOH has not implemented public procurement policies that include environmental and green growth consideration such as resources efficiency, pollution abatement, and climate resilience.
In February 2022, President Castro fulfilled her campaign promise to request support from the UN for an international anti-corruption commission (CICIH). A UN Technical Assistance Mission visited Honduras in May 2022 to begin work on the request. The commission would continue the work started by the OAS Mission Against Corruption and Impunity in Honduras (MACCIH) which left Honduras in 2020 after the former administration failed to renew its mandate. Though details are still under discussion, the commission would likely fill an investigative and prosecutorial role similar to MACCIH. Its mandate would likely extend beyond the current administration. Several risks remain; notably, a broad amnesty law passed in February 2022 that would prevent the commission from investigating a significant number of cases, and unclear financing for the commission.
U.S. businesses and citizens report corruption in the public sector and the judiciary is a significant constraint to investment in Honduras. Historically, corruption has been pervasive in government procurement, issuance of government permits, customs, real estate transactions (particularly land title transfers), performance requirements, and the regulatory system. Civil society groups are critical of recent legislation granting qualified immunity to government officials and a 2019 law that gave the highly politicized government audit agency a first look at corruption cases. Congress repealed the latter in 2022. In 2018, Congress passed a revision of the 1984 penal code that lowered penalties for some corruption offenses. The new code went into effect in June 2020 and was retroactively applied to several high-profile corruption cases resulting in a spate of dismissals and retrials. In late 2020, the GOH created a new Ministry of Transparency to act as the government’s lead institution in coordinating and implementing efforts to promote transparency and integrity and prevent government corruption. The Castro government further institutionalized the ministry’s anti-corruption mandate, naming it the Ministry of Transparency and the Fight against Corruption. The Castro administration’s Government by Results initiative should pay off in decreased vulnerability to corruption, and the ministers of Health and Economic Development both signed cooperation agreements with the country’s Anticorruption Council.
Honduras’s Rankings on Key Corruption Indicators:
TI Corruption Index
23/100, 157 of 180
MCC Government Effectiveness
-0.12 (35 percent)
MCC Rule of Law
-0.42 (10 percent)
MCC Control of Corruption
-0.40 (16 percent)
The United States Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) deems it unlawful for a U.S. person, and certain foreign issuers of securities to make corrupt payments to foreign public officials for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business for directing business to any person. The FCPA also applies to foreign firms and persons who take any act in furtherance of such a corrupt payment while in the United States. For more information, see the FCPA Lay-Person’s Guide: http://www.justice.gov/criminal/fraud/ .
Honduras ratified the UN Anticorruption Convention in December 2005. The UN Convention requires countries to establish criminal penalties for a wide range of acts of corruption. The UN Convention covers a broad range of issues from basic forms of corruption such as bribery and solicitation, embezzlement, trading in influence, and the concealment and laundering of the proceeds of corruption. The UN Convention contains transnational business bribery provisions that are functionally similar to those in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Anti-Bribery Convention.
Honduras ratified the Inter-American Convention against Corruption (OAS Convention) in1998. The OAS Convention establishes a set of preventive measures against corruption; provides for the criminalization of certain acts of corruption, including transnational bribery and illicit enrichment; and contains a series of provisions to strengthen the cooperation between its states’ parties in areas such as mutual legal assistance and technical cooperation.
Resources to Report Corruption
Companies that face corruption-related challenges in Honduras may contact the following organizations to request assistance.
José Mario Salgado
Director General of the Prosecutor’s Office
Honduran Public Ministry
The Public Ministry is the Honduran government agency responsible for criminal prosecutions, including corruption cases.
Association for a More Just Society (ASJ)
Honduras Country Director
Residencial El Trapiche, 2da etapa Bloque B, Casa #25
ASJ is a nongovernmental Honduran organization that works to reduce corruption and increase transparency. It is an affiliate of Transparency International.
National Anti-Corruption Council (CNA)
Executive Board Assistant
Colonia San Carlos, calle Republica de Mexico
CNA is a Honduran civil society organization.
U.S. Embassy Tegucigalpa, Honduras
Attention: Economic Section
Avenida La Paz Tegucigalpa M.D.C., Honduras
Telephone Numbers: (504) 2236-9320, 2238-5114
Fax Number: (504) 2236-9037
Companies can also report corruption through the Department of Commerce Trade Compliance Center Report a Trade Barrier website: http://tcc.export.gov/Report_a_Barrier/index.asp .
10. Political and Security Environment
Crime and violence rates remain high and add cost and constraint to investments. Demonstrations occur regularly in Honduras and political uncertainty poses a challenge to ongoing stability.
Although violent crime remains a persistent problem, Honduras has successfully reduced homicides to less than 40 per 100,000 inhabitants. Cases of violence, extortion, and kidnapping are still relatively common, particularly in urban areas where gang presence is more pervasive. Drug traffickers continue to use Honduras as a transit point for cocaine and other narcotics en route to the United States and Europe, which fuels local turf battles in some areas and injects illicit funds into judicial proceedings and local governance structures to distort justice. The business community historically had been a target for ransom kidnappings, but the number of such kidnappings dropped from 92 in 2013 to 15 in 2021, primarily through the work of the USG-supported Honduran National Police National Anti-Kidnapping Unit. Although violent crime rates are trending downward, corruption and white-collar crime, including money laundering, negatively affect economic prosperity and stability for the business community.
11. Labor Policies and Practices
The Honduran Labor Law prescribes a maximum eight-hour workday, 44-hour workweek, and at least one 24-hour rest period per week. The Labor Code provides for paid national holidays and annual leave. Most employment sectors also receive two one-month bonuses as part of the base salary, known as the 13th and 14th month salary, issued in mid-December and mid-June, respectively. New hires receive a prorated amount based on time-in-service during their first year of employment. The Labor Code requires companies to pay one month’s salary to employees terminated without cause. Companies do not owe severance to employees who resign or are terminated for cause. Employees terminated for cause can contest the basis for the termination in court to claim severance. There are no government-provided unemployment benefits in Honduras, although unemployed individuals may have access to their accumulated pension funds.
As mentioned above, in April 2022, President Castro signed the repeal of the Hourly Employment Law. Labor groups had alleged that some employers used hourly contracts to avoid responsibility for severance, provide employee benefits, and prevent union formation. The repeal did not stipulate the process for transitioning employees from hourly to salaried, but it did prevent the termination of employees.
The Secretariat of Labor and Social Security (SETRASS) is responsible for registering collective bargaining agreements. The Labor Code prohibits the employment of persons under the age of 14. Minors between the ages of 14 and 18 must receive special permission from SETRASS to work. The majority of the violations of the labor-related provisions of the children’s code occur in the agricultural sector and informal economy.
While Honduran labor law closely mirrors International Labor Organization standards, the U.S. Department of Labor has raised serious concerns regarding the effective enforcement of Honduran labor laws. Labor organizations allege the SETRASS fails to enforce labor laws, including laws on the right to form unions, reinstating employees unjustly fired for union activities, child labor, minimum wages, hours of work, and occupational safety and health. A 2015 U.S. Department of Labor report provided recommendations to address labor concerns in Honduras and called for a monitoring and action plan (MAP) to improve labor law enforcement in Honduras following a 2012 submission brought under the labor chapter of CAFTA-DR. While the government has made significant progress toward addressing areas of concern, outstanding issues to completing the Honduran government’s obligations under the MAP include resolution of emblematic collective bargaining cases and the enforcement and collection of fines for labor violations.
12. U.S. International Development Finance Corporation (DFC), and Other Investment Insurance or Development Finance Programs
The U.S. International Development Finance Corporation provides loan guarantees and direct loans for investments in priority areas: energy, healthcare, critical infrastructure, technology, small and medium enterprises, and women-owned businesses. With a global investment cap at $60 billion (increased from OPIC’s previous cap of $29 billion), loans range from $1 million to $250 million with loan guarantees potentially mobilizing more. The DFC also offers political risk insurance, technical assistance for financial institutions, and limited equity authority. The Export-Import Bank of the U.S. also provides project financing in Honduras. Honduras is a party to the World Bank’s Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency.
13. Foreign Direct Investment Statistics
Table 2: Key Macroeconomic Data, U.S. FDI in Host Country/Economy
Host Country Statistical source*
USG or international statistical source
USG or International Source of Data: BEA; IMF; Eurostat; UNCTAD, Other
Host Country Gross Domestic Product (GDP) ($M USD)