More information about Egypt is available on the Egypt Page and from other Department of State publications and other sources listed at the end of this fact sheet.
The United States established diplomatic relations with Egypt in 1922, following Egypt’s independence from its protectorate status under the United Kingdom. The United States and Egypt share a strong partnership based on mutual interests in Middle East peace and stability, economic opportunity, and regional security. Significant cultural and educational ties and assistance further enhance the strategic partnership. The core objective of U.S policy is to promote a stable, prosperous Egypt, where the government protects the basic rights of its citizens and meets the current and future needs of its large and growing population.
U.S. Assistance to Egypt
U.S. assistance to Egypt has played a central role in Egypt’s economic and military development and in furthering the U.S.-Egypt strategic partnership and regional stability. Since 1978, the United States has provided Egypt with over $50 billion in military and $30 billion in economic assistance. As a result of U.S. government economic assistance to Egypt:
- Millions of Egyptians have electricity;
- Over 25 million Egyptians have access to clean water and sanitation services;
- Polio has been eliminated in the country;
- Maternal mortality has been reduced by 78 percent;
- Over half a million smallholder farmers have increased their incomes through improved marketing and technical assistance; and
- Training for 115,000 primary school teachers is positively impacting 5 million children at 16,000 schools nationwide.
Additionally, the U.S. government has invested $604 million to grow and digitalize Egypt’s telecommunications sector; imported $5.9 billion in U.S. commodities to construct, expand, and modernize Egyptian infrastructure; offered $350 million in scholarships and exchange opportunities to more than 23,000 Egyptian and American students and mid-career professionals; and provided $100 million to conserve Egypt’s cultural heritage.
Bilateral Economic Relations
Total bilateral trade in goods between the United States and Egypt stood at $9.1 billion in 2021, the highest level ever. Egypt is the United States’ largest export market in Africa. U.S. exports to Egypt include wheat and corn, mineral fuel and oil, machinery, aircraft, and iron and steel products. U.S. imports from Egypt include apparel, natural gas and oil, fertilizers, textiles, and agricultural products. Under the Qualifying Industrial Zone agreement, the United States waives duties on imports from Egypt if the value includes 10.5% Israeli content; this program promotes stronger ties between the region’s peace partners. Egypt and the United States signed a Bilateral Investment Treaty in 1986 to promote and facilitate investment between our countries. Egypt and the United States have signed a trade and investment framework agreement, a step toward creating freer trade and increasing investment flows. American firms are active in most sectors of the Egyptian economy, including oil and gas exploration and production, renewable energy technologies, financial services, manufacturing, construction, telecommunications and information technology, and the restaurant and hospitality industry. Flows of U.S. direct investment to Egypt stood at $1.5 billion in 2020, bringing the accumulated long-term stock of U.S. FDI to nearly $24 billion. Egypt is positioning itself as a regional energy hub, rapidly boosting renewable energy production, further offering potential opportunities for U.S. firms. In November 2022, Egypt will host the United Nations Conference of the Parties (COP-27) climate change conference in Sharm el-Sheikh.
Egypt’s Membership in International Organizations
Egypt and the United States belong to a number of the same international organizations, including the United Nations, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, and World Trade Organization. Egypt also is a Partner for Cooperation with the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, an observer to the Organization of American States, a partner in the NATO Mediterranean Dialogue, and a non-party state to the International Criminal Court. Cairo hosts the headquarters of the League of Arab States.
Principal embassy officials are listed in the Department’s Key Officers List.
Information about Egypt is available from the Department of State and other sources, some of which are listed here: